The ability to apply fungicides successfully will be critical for controlling soybean rust. There is still a need for more research to determine the best application procedures, but results from work done on other crops and from practical experience in South America can be used to make recommendations. The most important factor to control when spraying for soybean rust will be spray droplet size. Small spray droplets provide better coverage and tend to deposit well on the target; but if droplets are too small, they will be unable to penetrate and deposit in the canopy, or they will drift off target. Droplets that are too large will not deposit as well because they have a tendency to bounce or run off the plant; and there will be fewer droplets, which reduces the coverage. The key is to create the droplet size that gives a good balance of coverage, penetration, and deposition.
A nozzle produces a range of droplet sizes, known as the droplet size spectrum. The American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) standard S-572: Spray Nozzle Classification by Droplet Spectra is used to classify nozzle droplet spectrums. This classification system has six categories (from small to large): very fine (VF), fine (F), medium (M), coarse (C), very coarse (VC), and extra coarse (XC). A medium droplet spectrum is recommended for making applications to control soybean rust.
An applicator can control the droplet spectrum created during an application by selecting and correctly using the proper nozzle. The droplet spectrum created by a nozzle is a function of the nozzle design, orifice size, and operating pressure. In general, nozzles with large orifices produce larger spray droplets, while nozzles with smaller orifices produce smaller spray droplets. As pressure is increased, smaller droplets are created. Using low pressures reduces the amount of small spray droplets. Use a nozzle manufacturer's catalog to select a nozzle size and operating pressure that will create the desired droplet spectrum of medium, as well as deliver the required nozzle flow rate in gallons per minute. An application rate of 15 GPA or higher is recommended for ground applications, but don't fail to create the right droplet spectrum when applying at higher rates. If necessary, use a slower sprayer speed to achieve the correct GPA and droplet spectrum.
Several styles of nozzle tips can be used to spray for soybean rust. Using nozzles with wide fan angles, such as 110 degrees, is recommended over narrower fan angles. Although hollow-cone nozzles can be used to make fungicide applications, they create a great deal of very small droplets that will not penetrate dense plant canopies. Extended-range flat-fan nozzles create smaller droplets in the higher end of their pressure-operating range, but be sure to not exceed the upper pressure limit. Turbo flat-fan nozzles also have a wide pressure-operating range and can create the desired droplets spectrum for controlling rust. Although air-induction nozzles are often considered only as drift-control nozzles, several designs produce fine and medium droplet spectrums. Research in peanut canopies has shown air-induction nozzles provide good canopy penetration. Air-induction nozzles are designed to work at higher pressures than other flat-fan nozzle designs and should be operated according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The research in peanuts also showed twin spray nozzles work well for achieving good canopy penetration and target coverage. Twin spray nozzles produce two flat-fan patterns, one angled forward and the other angled backward. Two designs are available: single tips with two orifices and modified caps that hold two individual nozzle tips. With these caps, the applicator can chose the type of nozzle to use, such as an air-induction tip. Sprayers with air-assisted booms have been shown to provide excellent canopy penetration and spray deposition. It is important to match the air-flow rate to the canopy as not to increase the risk of drift.
Aerial applications have given excellent control of soybean rust in South America. Nozzles are also important for controlling droplet size during aerial applications. Aerial applicators have a variety of nozzle types to choose from. By changing an aerial nozzle's deflector angle or orientation, you can alter the droplet size spectrum. This occurs because of sheer on the spray as it enters the high-speed air resulting from the aircraft's movement. As droplets enter this air, they can be shattered into smaller droplets. A valuable tool that aerial applicators have to assist in setting up their aircraft is the Aerial Spray Nozzle Models developed by the USDA/ARS Aerial Application Technology research team at College Station, Texas. If you enter the nozzle type, orifice size, nozzle or deflector angle, pressure, and air speed, the model calculates the droplet spectrum and other valuable information. This allows an aerial applicator to set up the aircraft to create the droplet spectrum required for job. Good control of droplet size is one of the reasons agricultural aircraft can successfully make applications at 5 GPA. In addition, agricultural aircraft have the advantage of speed, as well as the ability to spray when field conditions are too wet for a ground sprayer.
While keeping the boom as low as possible works well for ground applicators, flying too low can actually increase drift and reduce deposition for aerial applicators. An ideal height for aircraft to fly is often between 10 and 14 feet above the canopy. Any higher and the droplets are excessively exposed to wind. At lower heights, droplets can become trapped and carried off in air turbulence caused by the aircraft flying so close to the crop canopy.
There is much discussion regarding the possible reappearance of Asian soybean rust in 2005. In fact, a recent search using www.Google.com, an Internet search engine, yielded 153,000 hits on this topic! Few Illinois corn and soybean producers are familiar with foliar fungicides, and many are inquiring about Section 18 supplemental labels, as well as the toxicity profiles for these fungicides.
As of January 29, 2005, the following fungicides were labeled for managing soybean rust in soybeans; they are organized below by family (fungicide-resistance groups):
FRAC Group 3 (triazole family)
myclobutanil (Laredo EC* and Laredo EW*)
propiconazole (Bumper*, PropiMax EC*, in Stratego*, Tilt*)
FRAC Group 11 (strobilurin family)
trifloxystrobin (in Stratego*)
FRAC Group M5 (nitrile family)
chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather-Stick, Echo 720, Echo 90 DF)
Fungicides marked with an asterisk currently do not have soybean as a crop on their regular (Section 3) label; however, each was granted a Section 18 supplemental label that allows the product to be used on soybean to protect against soybean rust. If you wish to use a pesticide as directed by a Section 18 supplemental label, you must have a copy of the supple-mental label in your possession at the time of use. You may obtain these labels from your pesticide dealer, from online label sites, or directly from the pesticide manufacturer. Remember that these labels specifically state where, how, and for how long the product may be used. In addition, note that these Section 18 fungicide labels clearly state that "A maximum of 2 total applications using approved Section 18 products collectively are allowed under this soybean rust Section 18." The bottom line is that you may NOT spray any Section 18 product or combination of these products more than twice per acre per season.
These Section 18 fungicides are not new and untested; they already had full USEPA registration for use on other food crops. For more information about Section 18s and other supplemental labeling, see "A Primer on Supplemental Labeling" in the May 2004 issue of the Illinois Pesticide Review (http://www.pesticidesafety.uiuc.edu/newsletter/html/200403d.html).
Human and Environmental Toxicity
Are pesticides dangerous? Yes, they can be. That is why anyone using pesticides must read and follow the instructions provided on the product container or label: It's not only smart, it's the law! The danger of any product is evaluated not only by its toxicity but also by the degree of your exposure to the product.
Thus, Toxicity + Exposure = Hazard.
Look to the product label and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) when evaluating the relative danger of a pesticide:
Generalities regarding the triazole family of fungicides
Generalities regarding the strobilurin family of fungicides
Generalities regarding chlorothalonil-based fungicides
How do these fungicides compare with other commonly used pesticides?
Generalities regarding Asana and Warrior insecticides (both are pyrethroids)
Generalities regarding Atrazine 4L herbicide
Generalities regarding Roundup Ultra Max herbicide
Use caution when researching and interpreting toxicity information from various sources. Are the numbers and conclusions based on the active ingredient (technical product) or the formulated product? What do the numbers and conclusions mean on a relative scale (for example, in comparison to other commonly used pesticides)? Evaluating the usefulness and meaning of human health and environmental studies is often particularly troublesome. We are all too often bombarded by bits of evidence and premature conclusions. Well-designed and well-executed health and environmental studies take time. Accurate conclusions are drawn from the "weight of the evidence" from all studies rather than individual studies. It is good for those of us nontoxicologists to be watchful but also careful that we don't draw premature and inaccurate conclusions. To understand how the USEPA helps to ensure a safe environment and food supply, see: http://extoxnet.orst.edu/faqs/index.htm and www.epa.gov/pesticides.
Source: Label and MSDS information was obtained from Greenbook (http://www.greenbook.net), accessed on 1/29/05.
As you may have heard, several nurseries on the West Coast unknowingly shipped Phytophthora ramorum-infected plants across the country in the spring of 2004. This funguslike pathogen causes a destructive disease called "sudden oak death" (SOD), which is also known as "ramorum blight" or "ramorum dieback." To date, state and national survey efforts have detected SOD in 21 states. Thus far, SOD has NOT been detected in Illinois or in any bordering state. Additional information about SOD may be obtained by reading the September 1, 2004, issue of the Home, Yard & Garden Pest Newsletter (www.ag.uiuc.edu/cespubs/hyg/html/200416b.html) and by visiting the NC IPM Center Web site (www.Ncipm.org/sod/).
In response to the nature and spread of this disease, the Illinois SOD Task Force will be offering a detection-and-response training program for Illinois Master Gardeners, nurserymen, arborists, and landscape professionals. The program is scheduled for March 7, 2005, and will be offered simultaneously at multiple locations throughout Illinois from 9 to 11 a.m. Teleconference and PowerPoint presentations will be used to detail SOD hosts, symptoms, and epidemiology, as well as the detection and response protocol for Illinois. Brief updates about several invasive pests of trees will also be provided.
For a list of training sites, visit the University of Illinois Extension Master Gardener Web site at www.extension.uiuc.edu/mg, or contact your local University of Illinois Extension office.
This article is a continuation of the article titled, "Questions about Foliar Fungicide Labels".
Please click here to view both parts.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and state departments of agriculture have recently been alerted that some beekeepers have been using sodium cyanide compound to control pests in their honey bee colonies/hives. Specifically, apiarists have been purchasing and using a sodium cyanide compound as a fumigant in beehives to destroy or mitigate greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, and lesser wax moth, Achroia grissella, as well as to cull out weaker hives. These practices are illegal and have the potential for serious harm to human health and the environment.
Currently, there are no sodium cyanide or similar cyanide compound products registered by the USEPA for pest control in honey bee colonies/hives. Also, there are no established residue tolerances for any cyanide compound in honey or beeswax. Honey analyzed and found to contain any cyanide compound residue would be considered adulterated under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and could be seized. The seizure of honey due to adulteration with a highly toxic chemical would be detrimental to the entire apiary industry.
Further, use of sodium cyanide in an apiary setting can be extremely dangerous. The compound is highly toxic to humans and other warm-blooded animals, and it is a Toxicity Category I compound-EPA's highest toxicity level for pesticides. This rating indicates the greatest degree of acute toxicity for oral, dermal, and inhalation effects. It is highly corrosive to the skin and eyes. Cyanide can be absorbed through the skin, and its vapor is absorbed extremely rapidly via the respiratory tract.
Any individual selling or distributing sodium cyanide compound for mitigating any pest, including the wax moth, caterpillar, and larvae, or any other pest for use in beehives or colonies is selling and dis-tributing an unregistered pesticide and subject to penalties of up to $6,500 per violation under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).
Beekeepers who are currently in possession of the highly toxic, unregistered sodium cyanide compound or related products should contact the Illinois Department of Agriculture (IDA) for instructions on proper storage and disposal of the product. The IDA Bees and Apiary Program and University of Illinois Extension can also provide information on registered pesticides, such as paradichlorobenzene and aluminum phosphide products, that are legal to use to mitigate pests in honey bee colonies/hives.
(Adapted from USEPA fact sheet by Phil Nixon.)
A workbook has been developed for use during mosquito training. It consists of the handouts usually distributed by Illinois Department of Public Health personnel during training sessions. Including a lecture outline and practice tests on both the mosquito lecture material and an insecticide label, this publication should be useful not only during training but also to those who self-study for certification exams.
To order this publication, contact your local University of Illinois Extension office or call the Pesticide Safety Education Program office at (800)644-2123 or (217)244-2123.
Since the Worker Protection Standard became law in 1992, this federal program has moved through various phases of federal and state implementation, including (1) education/compliance assistance, (2) product-labeling inspection, and (3) employer-compliance inspections. During the summer of 2004, the Illinois Department of Agriculture (IDOA) inspected greenhouses, nurseries, seed-production operations, commercial spraying operations, vegetable farms, and sod farms specifically to assess compliance with the Worker Protection Standards (WPS). For each site, compliance was gauged against 115 specific responsibilities within 13 sec-tions as outlined in USEPA's The Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides-How to Comply.
WPS compliance section averages are provided in Table 1. In addition, specific responsibilities are listed for which average violation rates were 5% or higher. Overall, the compliance rate was 98%. Individual site violation rates ranged from 0% to 12%, and 65% of the sites were in full compliance. However, you should note that I opted to remove one inspection site before calculating the numbers provided in this article. This particular inspection site had a 67% violation rate and was well above the violation range of the other sites. By removing this statistical outlier and focusing on those sites that are making an effort to comply, WPS employers and trainers can more easily discern which WPS responsibilities may need additional attention.
To prepare for future WPS inspections, please consult USEPA's The Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides-How to Comply manual (revised July 1993). Note that Appendix B in the How to Comply manual includes a variety of useful compliance checklists, forms, and fact sheets. For a free copy of this manual, call Scott Frank or Jerry Kirbach with the Illinois Department of Agriculture at (217)785-2427. In addition, you can obtain several helpful WPS resources (for example, The WPS Resource Guide for Illinois Agricultural Employers, The WPS in Illinois, and Recordkeeping Manual for Private Applicators) from your local U of I Extension office or via www.pesticidesafety.uiuc.edu/facts/facts.html.
AVENGE (difenzoquat)–BASF–EPA has received a request from the registrant to cancel voluntarily the registration for this product. Unless withdrawn by 4-25-05, cancellation orders will be issued. (FR, vol. 69, 10-27-04)
HARMONY GT (thifensulfuron-methyl)–DuPont–EPA reinstated corn tolerances that were previously established but inadvertently removed. [herbicide]
PARALLEL (metolachlor)–MANA–A new formulation for use on corn. [herbicide]
RAXIL MD (metalaxyl/tebuconazole)–Gustafson–A seed treatment to control various diseases on small grains.
(Michelle Wiesbrook, unless otherwise noted, adapted from Agricultural Chemical News, November and December 2004.)
ARIA 50DF (flonicamid)–FMC–A new insecticide being developed for use on ornamentals.
AVAUNT (indoxacarb)–DuPont–The preharvest interval on apples has been shortened to 14 days. [insecticide]
DESPERADO (pyridaben/sulfur)–Wilbur Ellis–A new combination miticide used to control mites on stone fruits.
FENCHLOR FENZURON–Kim-CL–The company has given exclusive U.S. marketing rights for this growth regulator to Valent. It is used primarily on kiwi and grapes to increase fruit set and growth.
INTREPID (methoxyfenozide)–Dow AgroSciences–Added to their label the control or suppression of lepidoptera insects infesting cucurbits, blackeyed peas, and southern peas.
PHOSTROL–Nufarm–Added to their label the postharvest use on potatoes as they go into storage to suppress late blight and pink rot.
PYLON (chlorfenpyr)–BASF–Added to their label the use on greenhouse-grown fruiting vegetables. [insecticide]
SONATA (Bacillus pumilius strain QST-2808)–Agra Quest–This new biofungicide will be developed first for the control of mildew on lettuce. It will also be developed for use on apples and grapes to control powdery mildew. In addition, EPA established an exemption from residue-tolerance requirements on all food commodities. (FR, vol. 69, 11-3-04)
(Michelle Wiesbrook, unless otherwise noted, adapted from Agricultural Chemical News, November and December 2004.)
26GT FUNGICIDE (iprodione)–Bayer Environmental Science–Added to their label the control of curculia and anthracnose diseases.
ACTINOVATE SP (Streptomyces Lydicus strain W4EC-108)–Natural Industries–A new biological fungicide applied to the soil on ornamentals to control pythium, phytophthora, rhizoctonia, fusarium, and many other diseases.
CAVALCADE (prodiamine)–Sipcam Agro–A new formulation available for the turf and ornamental market. [herbicide]
CELERO (clothianidin)–Arvesta–A new insecticide being developed for use on ornamentals.
DISCUS (imidacloprid/cyfluthrin)–Olympic–A new combination insecticide being developed for use on ornamentals.
ECOGUARD (Bacillus licheniformis SB 3086/1 BA)–Novozymes Biologicals–A new biofungicide for use on golf courses and other turf areas, to control dollar spot.
EHIO (ethofumesate)–Ag Value–A new formulation to use on grass seed and sod farms.
ESCALADE (fluroxypyr/dicamba/2,4-D)–Nufarm–A new three-way product for use on turf. [herbicide]
FENSTAR (fenamidone)–Bayer Crop Science–A new fungicide for use on ornamentals. It will be marketed jointly with Olympic.
FLAZASULFURON 25WG (flazasulfuron)–ISK Bio Sciences–Proposed to EPA to register this new herbicide for use on turf. The comment period expired 12-10-04. (FR, vol. 69, 11-10-04)
FLORAMITE (bifenazate)–Crompton–Added to their label the control of Lewis mites and added the use on nonbearing fruit trees.
FRESCO (GA + BA)–Fine Agrochemicals–A new growth regulator being developed for use on ornamentals.
HERITAGE TL (azoxystrobin)–Syngenta–A new formulation (total liquid) being introduced into the turf market.
JUDO/FORBID (spiromesifen)–Bayer Crop Science/Olympic–A new insecticide/miticide being jointly developed by the two companies for use on ornamentals.
SAFARI 20SG (dinotefuran)–Valent–A new insecticide being developed for use on ornamentals.
SUBDUE MAXX (mefenoxam)–Syngenta–Added to their label the control of sudden oak death in ornamentals.
UP-STAR SC (bifenthrin)–United Phosphorus–A new formulation registered by EPA to use on indoor and outdoor ornamentals, greenhouses, and nurseries. [insecticide]
(Michelle Wiesbrook, unless otherwise noted, adapted from Agricultural Chemical News, November and December 2004.)
ADVION (indoxacarb)–DuPont–A new fire ant bait that provides 24- to 72-hour control. Available in 2-lb jugs and 25-lb bags.
AVENGER (diazinon/tetrachlorvinphos)–Boehringer–A new cattle ear tag to control ticks, flies, and lice on cattle.
EXTINOSAD (spinosad)–Elanco Animal Health–A new bait to control flies and darkling beetles around agricultural animal premises.
OPTIGARD DW (thiamethoxam)–Syngenta–A new formulation being developed to control dry wood termites.
ZYROX (lufenuron)–Syngenta–A new bait to control termites has been approved by EPA. It can be used in both aboveground and belowground baiting systems.
ACCURE (spiroxamine)–Bayer Crop Science–A new fungicide in the final stage of registration for use on grapes, hops, and bananas.
ALLETHRIN–EPA has cancelled all residue tolerances for this insecticide. (FR, vol. 69, 9-29-04)
AVACHEM SORBITOL OCTA-NOTE–AVA Chemical Ventures–Proposed to EPA to register this new active ingredient to be used on all food commodities. This is a fatty acid ester made from sorbitol and caprylic acid. It is effective as a foliar spray against soft-bodied insects and mites when applied at a 0.5 to 1% rate. EPA has received a petition for an exemption from residue-tolerance requirements on all agricultural commodities. The comment period expired 10-29-04. (FR, vol. 69, 9-29-04)
BIFENTURE (bifenthrin)–United Phosphorous–This new formulation is available for use on numerous crops. [insecticide]
COMPANION DRY CONCENTRATE (Bacillus subtilis GB-03)–Growth Products–A new formulation to be used on greenhouse-grown vegetables and ornamentals. It is a biofungicide and has a zero-hour re-entry interval.
EDICT (pyraflufen-ethyl)–Nichimo America–This herbicide is being sold for industrial vegetation control.
FANFARE (bifenthrin)–MANA–A new formulation to control numerous insects in cotton, fruit crops, and vegetables.
METRI DF (metribrazin)–Ag Value–A new formulation recently registered with EPA to use on potatoes, alfalfa, small grains, and soybeans. [herbicide]
VENOM/SAFARI (dinotefuran)–Valent–A new insecticide in the final stages of registration for use on vegetables, turf, and ornamentals and as a public health insecticide.
WEEDHAWK DF (2,4-D)–Nufarm–A new formulation for use on various crops. [herbicide]
WESTAR (hexazinone/sulfometuron-methyl)–DuPont–A new combination herbicide to control various weeds in forests, noncrop sites, airports, uncultivated agricultural areas, and industrial sites.
WISDOM TC (bifenthrin)–Amvac–A new formulation for use in residential and industrial buildings, commercial buildings, lawns, and parks. [insecticide]
ZONIX (Pseudomonas aerugenosa)–Jeneil Bio Surfactants–A new biofungicide being developed to control downy mildew, pythium, and phytophthora on agricultural crops, horticultural crops, and turf.
AGRICHEM LTD.–The Australian company has renamed their division to market Agri-Fos (potassium phosphate) to Fluence LLC.
AQUAMASTER (glyphosate)–Monsanto–The rates on the label have been changed to control Salvinia species in aquatic sites. [herbicide]
ARYSTA LIFE SCIENCES–The company will purchase Enzone (sodium tetrathiocarbanate) soil fumigant from Entek, a subsidiary of DuPont.
BAYER ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE–The company will move their Montvale, NJ, office to Research Triangle Park, NC, by the summer of 2005.
BAYER–After buying out Crompton Corp.'s 50 percent share of Gustafson, the company will form a new seed-treatment unit within the company. Gustafson will relocate from Texas to North Carolina, and a seed-technology center will be established in Research Triangle Park, NC.
KEM FINE–The new name for Kemira Fine Chemicals of Finland.
MAKHTESHIM AGAN NORTH AMERICA–The name of the company has been shortened to MANA.
MONSANTO–The company has purchased the corn-seed company Channel Bio Corp., which is made up of the seed-corn companies Crow Hybrid Corn Co., Midwest Genetics Seed Co., and Wilson Seeds.
NUFARM–The company has purchased the Brazilian ag chem company Agripec.
SCOTTS–The company has sold their Metro Mix and Redi-Earth professional-growing-media brands to Sun Gro Horticulture, the Canadian peat moss company.
UNITED PHOSPHORUS–The company has greatly expanded its mancozeb production capacity.