Illinois Pesticide Review
In This Issue
- Knowing Where You Stand
- Factors That Affect Pesticides After Application
- "Caution" Signal-Word Rule Change
- Agricultural Use of Methyl Bromide: Atmospheric Impact
- Fleas, Flies, and Mites - Oh, My!
- Recently Revised PAT Category Manuals
- Pesticide Applicator Training Publications
- Pesticide Updates - Agronomic
- Pesticide Updates - Fruit/Vegetable
- Pesticide Updates - Turf/Ornamental
- Pesticide Updates - Structural
- Pesticide Updates - Many
- Pesticide Updates - Other
Knowing Where You Stand
Effective pest control requires scouting to find where a problem exists, then being able to return to that same place to treat and reevaluate the problem. There is a way to find the coordinates of a specific place in a field, golf course, or nursery so you can return to scout, treat, and reevaluate a pest problem. Global positioning system (GPS) receivers can be useful tools that help you find and store the location of a place that you need to revisit.
New technology surrounds us, and often that developed for one specific use is applied in many other areas. That is the case for GPS. GPS was originally developed for U.S. military uses such as search and rescue, mine laying and detection, and bomb and missile guidance. For example, you may have heard about the extensive use of GPS during the Gulf War and, more recently, the use of GPS-guided smart bombs in Afghanistan. Agricultural applications of GPS started in the early 1990s, and general consumer uses began a few years later. Now, you hear about GPS applications in industry trade magazines, at trade shows, from colleagues in agriculture or horticulture, or from hunters and sportsmen.
How Does GPS Work?
In short, GPS works by having a user's GPS receiver obtain range signals from several of 24 GPS satellites orbiting the earth. If the receiver can get distance information relative to four or more of the satellites, it can determine its three-dimensional location on earth. The positioning accuracy for a single GPS receiver is typically better than 20 feet after the United States removed the intentional degradation of GPS signals on May 1, 2000. However, this level of accuracy is generally not precise enough for applications such as guidance during chemical application.
How Is GPS Made More Accurate?
To get a more accurate location, a GPS receiver should utilize what is called a differential correction. Differential correction uses two GPS receivers, a reference receiver (base station) placed at a known location and a normal receiver, called a rover. Because the reference receiver knows its exact location, an error, or the difference between the known position and the GPS-calculated position, can be computed for the reference receiver. This difference is sent by radio or satellite to the roving receiver in the same general area to adjust the GPS-calculated position of the rover.
As a result of differential correction, a positioning accuracy of better than 3 feet can be obtained. GPS equipment that uses a differential correction is called DGPS, for differential global positioning system. There are several sources for differential correction signals. Some sources are free, while others require a subscription fee. When selecting equipment for guidance during chemical application, the distinction between GPS and DGPS becomes very important.
The World in Your Palm
Agricultural GPS receivers for yield mapping and vehicle guidance typically cost from $3,000 to $4,000. By contrast, consumer GPS receivers, originally developed for recreational uses, are much more affordable because they can be mass-produced. Currently, a handheld GPS receiver costs from $200 to $400 and can provide a positioning accuracy better than 20 feet. Some of the handheld GPS receivers can even acquire free differential correction signals called WAAS (wide area augmentation system), which makes them more accurate. The accuracy of a handheld receiver is sufficient to make rough maps and to mark obstacles, varieties, or even pest infestations. Many handheld receivers store these features internally for future reference and/or offer the ability to download stored data to a computer for further analysis.
Selection of GPS Receivers
Based on equipment sophistication, the accuracy and cost of GPS receivers vary greatly. A survey-grade DGPS can cost tens of thousands of dollars and achieve accuracy better than one inch. By contrast, a handheld GPS receiver costing only a few hundred dollars can provide accuracy of 5 to 20 feet. A general rule in selecting a GPS receiver is to meet the accuracy requirement for your applications with a minimum cost. However, the issue of GPS accuracy can be complex.
Perhaps the most important factor to affect a receiver's accuracy is whether it can obtain differential correction signals. If your general area is covered by differential correction signals such as WAAS or the U.S. Coast Guard Beacon System, select a receiver that can acquire one (or both) of these free corrections.
Besides the receiver's electronics, the accuracy also depends on the GPS satellite constellation (location) and signal conditions, which change minute by minute. Therefore, the receiver accuracy is often defined by a statistical variable, such as CEP (circular error probable) or 2dRMS. For example, a 3-feet 2dRMS accuracy indicates that about 95% of the data points are accurate within 3 feet, but the other 5% can be off by more than 3 feet. In comparing the advertised accuracy by different manufacturers, it is important to know which statistic is used to define their accuracy. Knowing that the accuracy is statistically defined, you will sometimes need to collect multiple points at the same location to improve the reliability of your measurement.
(Mark Mohr and Shufeng Han, Department of Agricultural Engineering)
Factors That Affect Pesticides After Application
One key characteristic of pesticides such as insecticides and miticides is the mode of activity, or mode of action. This term indicates both where the active ingredient works inside the insect or mite, generally referred to as site of action, and how it kills them. It is important to understand the mode of action of insecticides and miticides to implement a proper rotation schedule.
Insecticides and miticides have different modes of activity. These pesticides are categorized into chemical classes based on their mode of activity. Most target the insect or mite nervous system, as with acetylcholinesterace inhibitors and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) blockers. Examples include organophosphates (Orthene and Duraguard), carbamates (Mesurol and Closure), and macrocyclic lactones (Avid). Some insecticides and miticides act on target sites where energy is produced, such as the mitochondrial electron-transport inhibitors (METI). An example of these is the pyridazinones (Sanmite).
Besides understanding the mode of action, greenhouse managers also need to be aware of the factors that may influence the effectiveness of insecticides and miticides. Several factors may interfere with an insecticide or miticide before it reaches the site of action; these include environmental, transportation, and biochemical factors. Examples of each type of factor are explained as follows.
In volatilization, the liquid material leaves the application surface by evaporating into the vapor phase and moves into the air. Volatility, or evaporative characteristics, depends on formulation, temperature, and relative humidity. For example, higher air temperatures generally result in faster volatilization.
A problem occurs when an insecticide or miticides volatilizes before it actually penetrates the insect or mite cuticle, which may reduce the time the material is active. This effect is why it is generally recommended to apply insecticides and miticides during cooler periods (early morning or late afternoon) to reduce loss due to volatility.
Photolysis/photodegradation refers to breakdown of an insecticide or miticide due to sunlight (ultraviolet light). The breakdown time depends on the chemical and physical characteristics of the material. Photodegradation reduces the time that the material is active; therefore, it is generally recommended to apply insecticides and miticides on cloudy days.
Wash off refers to the insecticide's or miticide's being washed off the plant foliage. Wash off is most likely to occur under mist propagation. In addition, overhead irrigation, either by hand or with an automated irrigation system, can wash the material off the foliage before it has worked or penetrated the leaves. This point is especially important for foliar-applied systemic insecticides or for those insecticides and miticides with translaminar (within the leaf) movement. Allowing the spray application to dry before irrigation results in better kill.
Penetration refers to the ability of an insecticide or miticide to move through the skin or cuticle to reach the target or receptor site. Some insects, including mealybugs and scales, have a waxy coat-ing that makes it difficult for the insecticide to penetrate. It is generally recommended to time sprays when the young (crawlers) are present because they do not have a hard covering.
Another factor that may reduce penetration is molting, or shedding of the old skin. If an insect or mite molts before the material penetrates, no control can occur. This effect may be more pronounced during warmer times of year, when mites and insects usually molt more frequently.
Adsorption is the ability of an insecticide to bind to and be retained on the surface of growing-medium particles. Though this trait may prevent material from being leached, the particle charges may tie up the active ingredient and prevent it from being taken up by plant roots, thus resulting in reduced efficacy. The length of time the active ingredient is tied up by the medium depends on the insecticide's chemical characteristics.
Soil-applied systemic insecticides such as Marathon (imidacloprid) are susceptible to tie-up by growing mixes containing bark as their major component. This effect is especially likely after the growing medium has the opportunity to dry out, which leads to the active ingredient's binding more tightly to the growing-medium particles, making it difficult to release even if irrigated. Natural soil mixes or soils high in organic matter have the same effect. Using growing medium with low amounts of bark and organic matter prevents this.
Activation refers to the ability of the active ingredient to work by binding to the target site within an insect or mite. Many insecticides and miticides attack target sites in the nervous system. However, insects and mites may be able to modify these target sites, which prevents the active ingredient from binding to the target site, resulting in no control.
In detoxification, insects and mites can prevent the active ingredient from reaching the target site by breaking apart the active ingredient. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is a synergist that is sometimes added to insecticides such as pyrethroids, especially natural pyrethrins, to prevent certain insects from breaking down the material. If the active ingredient is broken down before reaching the target site, then it may be excreted by the insect or mite.
Knowing the mode of activity of an insecticide or miticide is important for implementing a rotation schedule that is effective in controlling insects and mites. However, it is just as important to understand the environmental, transportation, and biochemical factors that may influence the effectiveness of an insecticide or miticide.
(Raymond A. Cloyd)
"Caution" Signal-Word Rule Change
The US EPA has changed the signal-word requirements for the least toxic category of pesticides, those that fall into toxicity category IV. Starting February 12, 2002, if a pesticide falls into the least toxic cate-gory for all routes of exposure–such as oral, dermal, and inhalation–the product label will no longer be required to show the signal word "caution," though the word may be used by the manufacturer voluntarily. The child-hazard warning is still required on all products, and other uses of signal words stay the same.
Signal words are assigned to a product based on the toxicity of the product. There are four toxicity categories, and a signal word is assigned to each of the first three categories. Ranked from most to least toxic, the signal words are "danger" (or "danger–poison"), "warning," and "caution," for categories I, II, and III, respectively.
Under the old signal-word rules, pesticides in category IV were also required to bear the word "caution." The EPA sought to clarify the difference between categories III and IV by using a different signal word for the least toxic category. Because no suitable word could be found to indicate a lower risk from toxicity than "caution," the new rules make the use of the signal word "caution" optional on the labels of products in toxicity category IV.
Agricultural Use of Methyl Bromide: Atmospheric Impact
Phaseout of the fumigant methyl bromide has been a long process, with several delays and reassignment of target dates. The following overview of the impact of methyl bromide is adapted from the April 2001 issue of the USDA newsletter, Methyl Bromide Alternatives, available on the Internet at www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/mba/mebrhp.htm.
To protect the earth from the detrimental effects of ozone depletion, an international treaty, the Montreal Protocol, was developed in the late 1980s. Since then, it has been controlling the production and trade of ozone-depleting substances on a global basis and has been signed by more than 160 nations. The treaty phases out chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone-depleting compounds, including methyl bromide. In 1995, Montreal Protocol signatory countries agreed to freeze production of methyl bromide at 1991 levels for developed countries. Total phaseout for developed countries will occur January 1, 2005, except for quarantine, critical, and emergency exemptions. Developing countries will be allowed to use methyl bromide for several additional years.
Methyl bromide was designated an ozone-depleting substance in 1992, with an estimated ozone-depleting potential (ODP) of 0.7. The ODP is the ratio of the impact on ozone of a chemical compared to the impact of a similar mass of CFC-11, which is designated by the Montreal Protocol to have an ODP of 1.0. ODPs for ozone-depleting substances range from 0.01 to 10.0. For example, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform have ODPs of 1.2 and 0.11, respectively. In 1998, after further study, the Montreal Protocol reduced its ODP estimate of methyl bromide to 0.4.
While research to find alternatives to methyl bromide has continued, other scientists are examining the contribution the fumigant makes in depleting the ozone layer. Methyl bromide also is liberated into the atmosphere from natural sources, and efforts are being made to determine the ratio of atmospheric methyl bromide from natural and anthropogenic (human-made) sources, specifically uses related to agriculture. This calculation will allow a better estimate of ozone layer improvement to be expected after the phasing out of anthropogenic sources.
Of Sources and Sinks
Examination of the intricate balance between where methyl bromide comes from, where it goes, and what happens to it in the troposphere is needed; but this cycle gets complicated. "The problem with methyl bromide is that it is not entirely manmade," says James Butler, who is with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory. Natural sources include oceans, biomass burning, wetlands, crops, and forests.
The ocean is the largest methyl bromide source (emitting about 56 gigagrams per year) and the second largest sink (taking in about 77 gigagrams per year). A gigagram per year is equivalent to 1,000 metric tons per year. According to research by Shari Yvon-Lewis of the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, the ocean actually acts as a net sink, with a possible measurement range from -3,000 to -32,000 metric tons per year, meaning it takes more methyl bromide from the atmosphere than it emits to the atmosphere.
However, many factors influence the amount of methyl bromide emitted and absorbed by the Earth's oceans. The circulation patterns of the ocean, amount of precipitation, and water temperature all affect the delicate balance. By comparison, the contribution to the atmosphere by fumigation use of methyl bromide is reported to be about 60,000 metric tons per year, with 26,000 metric tons from soil fumigation.
The magnitude of sinks is not completely understood. "There are four ways to lose methyl bromide: removal by oceans, destruction in the stratosphere by ultraviolet radiation and OH reactions, removal by soils, and removed by plants," says Butler. Yvon-Lewis estimates that oceans take in 77,000 metric tons per year, as mentioned; OH reactions and ultraviolet radiation destroy about 86,000 metric tons per year; and soils take up almost 47,000 metric tons per year.
Scientists have as yet not been able to balance the equation consisting of known sources, known sinks, and measured methyl bromide in the atmosphere. "The reason the budget as we calculate it is imbalanced is because we have identified stronger sinks than we have sources. It is quite possible that we have not identified all the sources." A big unknown at this point is how much methyl bromide plants produce and how much they take up and destroy.
There are some theories about the unknown sources, namely plants. "Plants appear to produce and take in methyl bromide. There are some indications that salt marshes and other plants in the biosphere contribute to the budget," says Butler. Some research indicates that the global emission rate of the rapeseed plant is 7,000 metric tons per year. Wetlands contribute an additional 4,500 metric tons per year to the total global emission budget. Research investigating plants as sources and sinks of methyl bromide continues.
How Bad Is Methyl Bromide?
Although the lowered ODP rate may seem encouraging, methyl bromide does more damage in the ozone layer than most other ODP substances, partly because of the high mixing rate in the atmosphere. It also escapes easily into the atmosphere, where it contributes to the depletion of the ozone layer. Bill Thomas, of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, states, "While methyl bromide's ODP has fallen, it is unlikely it will fall below the 0.2 threshold. But if it did, it would be reclassified as a Class II substance, only altering the phaseout time line–not eliminating it. "The present best guess is that emissions of methyl bromide from agricultural uses account for 20 to 30 percent of global methyl bromide sources and are thought to be responsible for 3 to 10 percent of the stratospheric ozone depletion, according to NOAA researchers.
Fleas, Flies, and Mites - Oh, My!
Livestock Pest Management (SP 39-15) is a new manual available from University of Illinois Extension that discusses pest management in the major livestock species of Illinois, including cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses, and poultry. This 79-page manual includes information on integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent or reduce pests before pesticide treatment is needed, plus information on pesticide controls and their use. The manual includes information on the major classes of pesticides used on and around livestock, and how each pesticide class can affect the pest and host animal.
Four chapters are dedicated to identification and management of specific pests common around livestock–mites and ticks, fleas, lice, and flies. Because identifying the specific pest is important for effective pest control, a chapter is dedicated to pests common on specific host animal species. The appendix contains an identification key to help producers and pest control professionals identify whatever pests are present around a particular livestock establishment.
The manual can be ordered through your local University of Illinois Extension office or by contacting U of I Extension's Pesticide Applicator Training program at (800)644-2123 or (217)244-2123. Information is also available at www.pesticidesafety.uiuc.edu.
Recently Revised PAT Category Manuals
Seed Treatment (SP 39-4). This manual was jointly prepared by the University of Illinois and Purdue University Extension Pesticide Applicator Training programs. Drawing from the expertise of nine university and seedtreatment industry authors and from several previously published seed treatment manuals (courtesy of Kansas State, Washington State, Iowa State, and University of Nebraska), this category manual contains four in-depth chapters: (1) overview of seed treatment, (2) seed and seedling pests, (3) seed treatment products and safe use, and (4) seed treatment equipment and calibration. Color images of common insects and diseases are also included.
Soil Fumigation (SP 39-18). Drawing from the expertise of eight University of Illinois authors and from several previously published soil fumigation manuals (courtesy of University of Wisconsin and Washington State University), this category manual contains three in-depth chapters: (1) soil fumigants, (2) handling fumigants, and (3) fumigating soil. A supplemental section covering aerated-steam pasteurization is also included.
Pesticide Applicator Training Publications
A current list of study materials offered by the Illinois Pesticide Applicator Training (PAT) program is available by viewing this issue of the Illinois Pesticide Review in PDF format. These materials are intended to help you prepare for the certification exam(s) that you may need to apply pesticides in Illinois.
For manuals, the publication date can be found within the first few pages of the manual, near the "Issued in furtherance..." statement. As you will notice, several categories have packets available for individual study. The content of these packets changes irregularly as more current information becomes available. Workbooks are changed frequently to reflect new material and new directions in training. Although recently outdated workbooks are useful for home study, it is best to have a current edition when participating in a training session. For commercial applicators and operators attending a training clinic, registration fees cover current editions of the appropriate workbooks.
To order study materials, contact your local University of Illinois Extension office. Commercial applicators and operators can order study materials while registering for a training clinic by calling (800)644-2123 or (217)244-2123.
Pesticide Updates - Agronomic
GUARDSMAN MAX (dimethenamid-P/atrazine)–BASF–A new formulation for preplant, preemergence or early postemergence use on corn. [herbicide]
PENNCOZEB (mancozeb)–Cerexagri–Added to their label the control of scab (head blight) on wheat.
(Michelle Wiesbrook, unless otherwise noted, adapted from Agricultural Chemical News, November and December 2001.)
Pesticide Updates - Fruit/Vegetable
ADMIRE (imidacloprid)–Bayer–Added to their label the use on cilantro. [insecticide]
AG COPP 75 (copper oxide)–American Chemet–A new copper fungicide formulation for use on vegetables and fruit and nut crops.
ALLI-UP (diallyl sulfide)–Platte Chemical–A new soil fumigant used to control white rot in onions, garlic, and leeks.
AUXIGRO (GAA/glutamic acid)–Emerald Bio Ag–Added to their label the control of brown rot and the suppression of shot hole on stone fruits and almonds.
BIO SAVE 10LP (Pseudomonas syringae)–Eco Science–A freeze-dried formulation of the biofungicide, this product is registered as a postharvest treatment on citrus, apples, pears, cherries, and potatoes to control storage rots.
CABRIO (pyraclostrobin)–BASF–A new fungicide being developed for use on tomatoes to control early and late blight, septoria leaf spot, anthracnose, and powdery mildew.
DUAL (metolachlor)–Syngenta–Due to the high cost of reregistration, the company has voluntarily requested EPA to cancel the registered use on stone fruits and almonds. The comment period ended 10-22-01. (FR, vol. 66, 9-20-01)
ETHION–Cheminova/FMC–EPA received a request to cancel all registrations for this product. The comment period ended 10-26-01. (FR, vol. 66, 9-26-01) [insecticide]
PRO-PHYT (potassium phosphate)–Pamol–A new fungicide for the control of downy mildew, late blight, and root rot on cucurbits, tomatoes, and avocados.
QUADRIS (azoxystrobin)–Syngenta–Added to their label the use on strawberries to control powdery mildew, root rot, and basel stem rot.
REASON (fenamidone)–Aventis–A new fungicide being developed for use on potatoes, tomatoes, bulb vegetables, lettuce, and cucurbits to control early blight, downy mildew, purple blotch, and alternaria.
SUCCESS (spinosad)–Dow AgroSciences–Added to their label the foliar insect suppression in okra. Also for use on sugarbeets and garden beets.
TOPSIN-M (thiophanate-methyl)–Cerexagri–Added to their label the use on pistachios, pears, grapes, celery, and garlic to control various diseases.
(Michelle Wiesbrook, unless otherwise noted, adapted from Agricultural Chemical News, November and December 2001.)
Pesticide Updates - Turf/Ornamental
FLORGIB 4L (gibberellic acid)–Fine Agrochemicals–A new formulation being developed as a growth regulator for use on ornamentals.
MAXGUARD (bifenthrin)–Scotts–A new formulation used to control insects in home lawns.
MILLENIUM ULTRA PLUS (2,4-D/clopyralid/dicamba/MSMA)–Riverdale–A new formulation used to control both broadleaf weeds and crabgrass in turf.
OVER-N-OUT (fipronil)–Aventis–A new granular formulation to control insects and fire ants in lawns.
RIMON (novaluron)–Makhteshim-Agan–Received EPA registration for use on greenhouse ornamentals. It will be sold in this market by Uniroyal. Registration on cotton, pome fruit, and vegetables is expected by 2003. [insecticide]
SEXTANT (iprodione)–Olympic–A new formulation to be marketed for use on ornamentals. [fungicide]
SUPER TRIMEC (2,4-D/2,4-DP/dicamba)–PBI Gordon–A new formulation developed for use on turf to control broadleaf weeds.
TAEGRO (B. subtilis var. amyloique-faciens strain FZB 24)–Taensa–A new biofungicide (rhizobacteria) that colonizes plant roots, protecting the plant from infection by disease organisms. It is applied as a dip treatment before planting greenhouse ornamentals.
TRITON (triticonazole)–Aventis/Bayer–A new product being developed to control dollar spot, brown patch, summer patch, and take-all on commercial turfgrasses, golf courses, and sod farms.
TURF ESTER (2,4-D/2,4-DP/dicamba)–PBI Gordon–A new formulation developed for use on turf to control hard-to-kill weeds.
(Michelle Wiesbrook, unless otherwise noted, adapted from Agricultural Chemical News, November and December 2001.)
Pesticide Updates - Structural
SEVIN (carbaryl)–Aventis–Due to the high cost of reregistration, the company has deleted from their label the use on poultry. [insecticide]
Pesticide Updates - Many
FIRE POWER (glyphosate/oxyfluorfen)–Monsanto–A new combination herbicide for postemergence use in middles and strips and for preplants in fallow beds. Also for use in tree, nut, and vine crops.
FLORAMITE (bifenazate)–Uniroyal–The 2-pound SC formulation is now available for use on ornamentals and nonbearing fruit trees; in greenhouses and shadehouses, nurseries, Christmas tree plantations, interiorscapes, residences, commercial and public areas, recreational areas (such as golf courses, parks, etc.), and rights-of-way–to control various mites.
GUTHION (azinophos-methyl)–Bayer–EPA has canceled the uses on 28 crops and installed a 4-year phaseout period on almonds, tart cherries, cotton, cranberries, peaches, pistachios, and walnuts. On the following crops, EPA will allow a 4-year, time-limited use (during which time the use will be reas-sessed): apples, crabapples, blueberries, sweet cherries, pears, pine seed orchards, Brussels sprouts, and caneberries; and in nurseries. [insecticide]
IMIDAN (phosmet)–Gowan–Added to their label the use on ornamental plants, nonbearing fruit and nut trees, and vines; and a claim to control snails. In an agreement with EPA, the company will cancel the uses on household ornamentals, trees, and pets. EPA has authorized the use of this product for the next 5 years on the following crops: apples, apricots, blueberries, crabapples, grapes, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums, and dried plums. [insecticide]
LARVIN (thiodicarb)–Aventis–Label changes include the addition of the use on sweet corn and revision of the restricted-entry interval from 12 to 48 hours. [insecticide]
MOCAP (ethoprop)–Aventis–Due to the high cost of reregistration, the company has deleted from its label the use on peanuts, citrus seedlings, and commercial and golf course turf. Other deleted uses include peanuts and sweet corn lay-by application (15% formulation); peanuts, sugarcane, field and sweet corn, and citrus seedlings (EC formulations); peanuts, golf course turf, and sweet corn lay-by application (10% granular formulation); and sweet corn lay-by application (20% granular formulation). [insecticide]
MORESTAN (oxythioquinox)–Bayer–EPA has issued a cancellation order, which was requested on 3-17-99. (FR, vol. 66, 9-20-01)
Pesticide Updates - Other
AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL BOOK II–HERBICIDES–This new revision is the latest book on herbicides, updating the older products and adding about 25 new herbicides. Names, chemistry, uses, applications, methods, etc. are included. Available from Thomson Publications, P.O. Box 9335, Fresno, CA 93791; phone, (559)266-2964; fax, (559)266-0189; or www.agbook.com. The cost is $24.95 each, plus tax, if applicable, and $5.50 for UPS shipping.
BAYER–The company has acquired Aventis Crop Science from Aventis and Schering for about $4.9 billion, plus the assumption of about $1.8 billion in debt. The new company will be known as Bayer Crop Science and will be based in Mannheim, Germany.
BECKER UNDERWOOD–The company has acquired Rhizup Innocculants from Eco Soil Systems.
CHEMINOVA–The company plans to purchase the British adjuvant company Headland Agrochemicals.
DOW AGROSCIENCES–The company has purchased from BASF the remaining 50% of the joint-venture company Rohmid. Dow Agrosciences had obtained the other 50% when it purchased Rohm & Haas. Rohmid was set up to market the turf insecticide Mach 2 (halofenozide).
KMG CHEMICALS–The company announced it would start up its new MSMA herbicide plant in Matamoros, Mexico. KMG acquired the worldwide MSMA registration and trademark from Zeneca (now Syngenta) last year for $2.3 million.
SYNGENTA–The company has decided to close its formulation facilities at North Little Rock, AR. Formulation will now take place at other Syngenta plants.
SYNGENTA AGRO–The company has moved its world headquarters from Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, to Maintal, Germany.
UNIROYAL–The company will close its propargite miticide production facility in Naugatuck, CT; and all production of the product will be done in Latina, Italy.