Illinois Pesticide Review
In This Issue
- Household Pesticide Use
- Children's Exposure to Pesticides
- EPA Soon To Begin Screening Pesticides in Search of Endocrine Disruptors
- Hello to/from Jim Schuster
- Recent Pesticide Applicator Manual Revisions
- Commercial Pesticide Training Information Available
- Upcoming University of Illinois Extension Programs
- 8th Annual Pesticide Stewardship Conference
Household Pesticide Use
Included in EPA's study on children's exposure to pesticides was the following summary information on the use of pesticides in U.S. households.
The EPA Office of Pesticide Programs uses proprietary data sources in producing "Market Estimates" of pesticide sales and use in various market sectors. According to their estimates, the annual amount of insecticide active ingredients used in the home-and-garden sector declined from 24 million pounds in 1982 to less than 13 million pounds in 1988. Although the figure rose to 17 million pounds between 1998 and 2001, it still represents a significant decline from the early 1980s. In contrast, the amount of herbicides applied steadily increased over the same period, nearly doubling from 37 million pounds in 1982 to 71 million pounds in 2001 (US EPA, 2004) as lawn coverage increased. In 2001, insecticides comprised nearly 60% and herbicides nearly 30% of the home-and-garden sector expenditures (US EPA, 2004).
A study conducted in Missouri from June 1989 to March 1990 using telephone interviews (Davis et al., 1992) examined pesticide use in the home, garden, and yard. Nearly all 238 families (98%) used pesticides at least one time per year, and two-thirds used pesticides more than five times per year. Pesticides were most commonly used inside the home (80%), followed by in the yard (57%). Flea collars were the most popular pest-control product (50%). Diazinon and carbaryl were identified as the two most commonly used active ingredients at that time.
The community-based survey conducted by Bass et al. (2001) in Douglas, Arizona, in 1999 identified pesticides used in the home, use and storage locations, and disposal methods. All (100%) of the 107 randomly chosen study participants reported using pesticides in the 6 months prior to the survey, although only 75% reported pest problems. Over 30% used a professional exterminator. A total of 148 pesticide products, representing more than 50 unique active ingredients, were catalogued (1.4 products per home). The synergist piperonyl butoxide (34%) was most common, followed by pyrethrins (24%), permethrin (18%), allethrin (17'%), diazinon (16%), and boric acid (13%). The majority of the pesticides were stored inside the house (70%), typically in the kitchen (45%).
Curwin et al. (2002) investigated the differences in pesticide use for 25 farm homes and 25 nonfarm homes in Iowa. The target pesticides included atrazine, metolachlor, acetochlor, alachlor, 2,4-D, glyphosate, and chlorpyrifos. Among the nonfarm households, 84% used pesticides in their homes or on their lawns or gardens. Only 17% of reported residential pesticide use was by commercial application.
Freeman et al. (2004) examined pesticide-use patterns during the summer 2000 and winter 2000–2001 seasons among families with very young children in a Texas border community. Pesticide use inside the home showed seasonal variation (82% of homes treated in summer versus 63% in winter). The primary room treated was the kitchen, and the primary structures treated were the floors, lower walls, and dish cupboards. The pesticides used were typically pyrethroid formulations. For nearly all of the pesticides analyzed, no differences were found in pesticide levels in house dust based on family reports of pesticide use in the home or yard.
The entire report, including references, can be accessed at http://www.epa.gov/nerl/research/data/.
(Phil Nixon, from slightly revised EPA document.)
Children's Exposure to Pesticides
The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) identified four priority research areas as representing critical data gaps in our understanding of environmental risks to children. These priority research areasare (1) pesticide-use patterns, (2) spatial and temporal distributions of residues in residential dwellings, (3) dermal absorption and indirect (nondietary) ingestion, and (4) dietary ingestion. Several targeted studies were conducted or financially supported by NERL specifically to address these priority research needs. The studies were designed to address the largest uncertainties associated with children's exposure and aimed to produce sufficient real-world data to eliminate excessive reliance on default assumptions when assessing exposure. Significant progress has been made in each of the four priority areas, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of the exposures resulting from children's interactions with their environment.
In the area of pesticide-use patterns, our studies have taught us that pesticide products are likely to be found in nearly 9 out of every 10 homes. The most frequently applied of these products typically contains pyrethrins and pyrethroids (namely, permethrin, cypermethrin, and allethrin). The applications are more likely to be performed by an occupant than by a professional, with crack-and-crevice applications favored over either the broadcast or total-release aerosol types. The application frequencies appear to be higher in warmer climates, but no differences based on population density (urban vs. rural) or other sociodemographic factors (including race, ethnicity, home type, income, and level of education) are evident. Despite much effort in questionnaire development, we have had little success in correlating questionnaire responses with residue measurements. More effort is still needed to improve questionnaires and to ensure uniformity in inventory forms in future studies. Target populations for future studies should be chosen from areas that extend outside the limited geographic regions that have previously been studied to capture divergent use patterns, but previously studied populations should also be included to document trends.
We have learned a great deal about spatial and temporal distributions of pesticide residues. Indoor-air concentrations are typically tenfold higher than outdoor concentrations, but surprisingly high outdoor-air concentrations have also been measured. In the absence of any recent application, concentrations in indoor air are strongly influenced by vapor pressure. Immediately following an application, airborne concentrations peak within 24 hours and produce a concentration gradient, with levels decreasing with distance from the application site. Southern states do have higher airborne concentrations than northern states, but there is considerable overlap. Population-density (urban vs. rural) and income-level differences are evident. With surface residues, considerable variability exists not only among rooms but also in different locations within a room. Substantial translocation of pesticides from application surfaces to adjacent surfaces, as well as from outdoor surfaces to indoor surfaces, has been observed. Cleaning activities and ventilation have been found to be important for both air and surface concentrations. Much, though not all, of what we have learned about spatial and temporal variability has come from organophosphate pesticides, and more studies with pyrethroids are needed.
These studies have added merit to earlier hypotheses that dermal transfer and indirect ingestion are important routes of children's exposure to pesticides. In fact, the shift to less volatile, more organophilic (adhere better to painted and varnished surfaces and are less likely to wash away) pyrethroid pesticides magnifies the importance of particle-bound transfer and implies an increased significance of indirect ingestion. Substantial challenges still exist in this area. One challenge is to incorporate into estimates of dermal exposure what we have learned through laboratory studies of the importance of skin condition, contact motion, and number of contacts. Another challenge is to standardize the collection methods used to measure the surface residues that are a key part of dermal exposure estimates. A third challenge is to improve our indirect-ingestion-exposure measurements to ensure that we are not missing major transfer mechanisms that may bridge the gap between what we are estimating as intake and what we are measuring as excreted.
Analysis of the dietary-ingestion components of our studies produces intake estimates that suggest dietary ingestion may often be the dominant route of exposure (even with pyrethroids, despite the increased importance of the dermal and indirect-ingestion routes). Low detection frequencies in food measurements, however, increase uncertainty, as does the questionable reliability of duplicate diet estimates for young children. Improvements are still essential in both the sample collection and the chemical analysis methods. Large differences in dietary-
exposure estimates among children in the same studies point to a need for a better understanding of the variability in dietary exposure.
Clearly, more information is needed to assess the relative importance of the exposure routes under different conditions and with pesticides from diverse compound classes. More work is necessary to reconcile aggregate exposure estimates with levels of biomarkers measured in urine. Moreover, more work is needed to better understand how exposures and important exposure factors differ across age groups, as children move through different developmental stages.
The entire report can be accessed at http://www.epa.gov/nerl/research/data/.
(Phil Nixon, from slightly revised EPA document.)
EPA Soon To Begin Screening Pesticides in Search of Endocrine Disruptors
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is in the final stages to begin screening pesticides for their potential effect on the endocrine system. The agency sought comment on the draft list of 73 pesticides to be evaluated under the new screening regimen. The extended comment period ended November 16, 2007. Pesticide candidates on the draft list were selected for screening based on their high potential for exposure to people or the environment, and not on possible endocrine-disruption effects. The ultimate purpose of the screening is to determine if the pesticides can adversely influence the endocrine system. This is not a draft list of potential endocrine disruptors. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, mandated under the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), will determine whether certain chemicals have an effect on the endocrine system, using validated tests and other scientific information. Under FQPA, all pesticide chemicals will be screened, starting with the draft list.
EPA's draft list focuses on those pesticide ingredients—active and inert—with relatively high potential for human exposure. The agency gave priority to pesticide active ingredients for which there is the potential for human exposure through food and water, residential exposure to pesticide products, and high levels of occupational exposure following an application of agricultural pesticides. For pesticide inert ingredients, the priority was on those with high production volumes found in human or ecological tissues, water, and indoor air.
After considering comments on the draft list, EPA will issue a second Federal Register notice with the final list of chemicals.
More information about the draft list, an overview of the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program and its history, and an overview of the endocrine system can be found at http://www.epa.gov/endo/index.htm.
The Federal Register announcement can be found at http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-PEST/2007/June/Day-18/p11711.htm.
For an alphabetized draft list of the 73 pesticide active ingredients and HPV/
pesticide inert chemicals selected for Tier 1 screening, see http://www.epa.gov/endo/pubs/prioritysetting/draftlist.htm.
(Michelle Wiesbrook; adapted from The Connection newsletter of the North Central Integrated Pest Management Center, September 2007.)
Hello to/from Jim Schuster
Jim Schuster is a new member of the Department of Crop Sciences at the University of Illinois. He will be working with the Pesticide Safety Education Program (PSEP) team as an Extension specialist. The PSEP team provides education to applicators throughout the state on pesticide use and the Worker Protection Standard. Schuster will primarily be responsible for the plant pathology areas of the PSEP program and will be working closely with plant pathologists to maintain the most up-to-date information on plant diseases, including the latest on control.
Schuster's background and education include working in the landscape trade before joining Extension, and receiving a B.S. degree in horticulture (now Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences) and a M.S. in plant pathology, with both degrees from the University of Illinois. He also has more than 37 years of experience in Extension. He is available to assist individuals with plant-disease issues. His address is
Jim Schuster, Extension Specialist–Plant Pathology
University of Illinois Department of Crop Sciences
S-420 Turner Hall
1102 S. Goodwin Ave.
Urbana, IL 61801
Recent Pesticide Applicator Manual Revisions
Plant Management (SP 39-9)
This category study manual is ideal for persons using pesticides in the management of indoor plants. It provides advanced information for those needing to become certified as Commercial, Commercial Not-for-Hire, or Public Plant Management Applicators. This revised manual features color photographs interspersed throughout the text, as well as new illustrations in the equipment and calibration chapter. The integrated pest management chapter was moved to the beginning of the manual to serve as an introduction.
Some additions have been made to the appendix:
"A General Diagnostic Guide for Indoor Plants"
"Some Diseases that Affect Plants Used Indoors"
Information is updated and revised throughout, with the revised manual being about 20 pages longer than the previous edition.
To purchase this, or any other Pesticide Safety Education Program publication, contact your local University of Illinois Extension office, order online (www.PublicationsPlus.uiuc.edu), or call (800)345-6087.
Commercial Pesticide Training Information Available
I recently received my annual letter from the Illinois Department of Agriculture. It seems like only last week I was taking my Illinois Pesticide License exams, but somehow 3 years have flown by. Perhaps you are in the same situation. Even if you are one of the lucky ones with a little more time left, you will have to renew your license. December 31 is the expiration date for Commercial, Commercial Not-for-Hire, Dealer, and Public licenses. The Illinois Department of Agriculture sends out both retest and renewal letters, typically in November. Your letter indicates your license status. However, you can check its status anytime by searching the Illinois Department of Agriculture Kelly Registration Pesticide Applicator Database at http://www.kellysolutions.com/IL/Applicators/index.asp.
If you are new to this industry, you may need information on license requirements and testing and training options. The Pesticide Safety Education Program at the University of Illinois has released its clinic dates for the 2007–2008 season. You can view the schedule and find related information at http://www.pesticidesafety.uiuc.edu/training/training.html. Schedule booklets can also be picked up at your local U of I Extension office or ordered by calling (800)644-2123 or (217)244-3469. The booklets contain order information for study materials, and an up-to-date list of materials can also be found online at http://www.pesticidesafety.uiuc.edu/publications/publications.htm.
How current are the study materials on your bookshelf? A lot can change in a 3-year test cycle. Just this year alone, the following publications were revised:
General Standards Workbook
Plant Management Manual
Plant Management Workbook
Field Crops Workbook
We anticipate that the finished publications will be available soon if they aren't already. The Bilingual General Standards Workbook (English/Spanish) is currently undergoing revision and is expected to be available in early 2008. Materials are revised from time to time, so checking the publications list at the Web address above prior to training or testing is recommended.
Upcoming University of Illinois Extension Programs
Illinois Crop Protection Technology Conference
The Crop Protection Technology Conference (CPTC) will take place January 9 and 10, 2008, at the Illini Union, 1401 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois. The theme for the 60th annual CPTC is Serving Agriculture and the Environment. The conference begins at 8:30 a.m., and the opening session is titled "Preventing Poly Tanks from Cracking Like an Egg," by Fred Whitford, Purdue University. Following this opening session, there will be five issue-based symposia, each with four or five speakers, offered over the two days:
High-Production Soybean Management
Managing Nutrients and Water Quality—A Balancing Act
Pest Resistance and Resistance Management: IPM vs. IRM
IPM in the Crosshairs
High-Production Corn Management
The registration fee for the CPTC is $120 on or before December 14, 2007. After this date, the registration fee is $150. This registration fee includes a copy of the proceedings and a copy of the 2008 Illinois Agricultural Pest Management Handbook. You can register online at http://ipm.uiuc.edu/conferences/cptc/index.html or call (800)321-1296. CCA credits will be available.
Corn and Soybean Classics
The program for the 2008 Corn and Soybean Classics will focus on crop production, pest management, and economics. The Classics will be offered at five Illinois locations:
January 14—Rend Lake Conference Center, Whittington
January 15—Crowne Plaza, Springfield
January 16—i wireless Center (formerly The Mark), Moline
January 17—Kishwaukee College, Malta
January 18—Interstate Center, Bloomington
Each Classic will begin at 9:00 a.m. and end between 3:00 and 3:30 p.m. Registration is $45 on or before December 22, 2007. After this date, registration will be $60. The registration fee includes lunch and a proceedings booklet. You can register online at http://ipm.uiuc.edu/conferences/csc/index.html or call (800)321-1296. CCA credits will be available. The program for the 2008 Corn and Soybean Classics includes the following topics:
Corn and Soybean Basis—Will Weakness Persist?
Is Strip-Tillage Right for You?
Corn and Soybean Returns: Past and Present
Foliar Fungicides for Corn: Just Another Management Tool or the Only Tool Needed?
Corn Rootworm Management in a Triple-Stack "World"
Secrets of Interpreting Nematode Lab Results for Corn and Soybean
Is Corn Following Corn the New "Standard?"
Soybean Aphids and Soybean Defoliators—Are We Making Progress?
Consternations of the Waterhemp Conundrum
Illinois Crop Management Conferences
The 2008 Crop Management Conferences will be held at three locations throughout Illinois. The agenda for the conferences has yet to be finalized; but the topics will include weed-resistance management, use of GPS and GIS technology, bioenergy, applied on-farm research, current entomological issues, fungicide applications to corn, and the new EPA nutrient standards. For registration information, contact the coordinator listed for the conference you are interested in attending. CCA credits will be available. Registration will be $100 for those who preregister and $150 at the door. The dates and locations of the 2008 Crop Management Conferences are
January 29 to 30, 2008: Southern Illinois Crop Management Conference
Rend Lake Resort and Conference Center, Whittington
Coordinated by Dennis Epplin, (618)242-9310
February 12 and 13, 2008: Central Illinois Crop Management Conference
Rt 66 Hotel and Conference Center, Springfield
Coordinated by Robert Bellm, (618)692-9434
February 19 and 20, 2008: Northern Illinois Crop Management Conference
Kishwaukee College Convention Center, Malta
Coordinated by Greg Clark, (815)772-4075
Illinois Specialty Crops and Agritourism Conference
January 9 to 11, 2008
Contact: Rick Weinzierl, (217)333-6651
Southwestern Illinois Tree Fruit School
February 5, 2008
Contact: Elizabeth Wahle, (618)692-9434
Southern Illinois Tree Fruit School
February 6, 2008
Mt. Vernon, IL
Contact: Elizabeth Wahle, (618)692-9434
Southern Illinois Vegetable School
February 13, 2008
Mt. Vernon, IL
Contact: Elizabeth Wahle, (618)692-9434
Illinois–Wisconsin Fruit and Vegetable Conference
February 15, 2008
Location to be announced
Contact: Maurice Ogutu, (708)352-0109
Western Illinois Fruit and Vegetable School
February 19, 2008
Contact: Mike Roegge, (217)223-8380
Kankakee Area Vegetable School
February 20, 2008
Contact: James Theuri, (815)933-8337
Illinois Small Fruit and Strawberry School
March 4 and 5, 2008
Mt. Vernon, IL
Contact: Bronwyn Aly, (618)695-2444
8th Annual Pesticide Stewardship Conference
Conference theme: Stewardship Strategies and Tools
February 24 to 27, 2008
Asheville, North Carolina
The Pesticide Stewardship Alliance, http://tpsalliance.org.
Conference objectives: To serve as a forum to facilitate networking and cooperation among parties from around the world to improve stewardship program efforts—increasing effectiveness and efficiency through proper labeling, judicious application, proper handling of empty containers, and waste minimization. TPSA seeks individuals with pertinent information from private companies, public entities, and organizations who are willing to share their stories, findings, and challenges. Network during the evening festivities: opening reception, grand reception, and North Carolina "pig pickin'" dinner and band. For conference details, visit http://tpsalliance.org.
Conference topic areas of interest (United States and International)
Applicators: Document Your Stewardship Efforts
Future Dynamics of E-Labeling for Stewardship: Spray-Drift BMPs, Container Recycling, and Waste Management
Improving Pesticide Product Label Systems for Stewardship Information
Managing Hazardous Wastes Smarter: Using All Tools at Your Disposal
Managing Agricultural Plastics: Market Developments and Successful Programs
Programs Designed to Reach Applicators and Protect the Environment and Public Health
Recycling Plastic Containers: Status, Volume Reduction, and Collection Logistics
Spray-Drift Mitigation Programs (International, U.S.) and Stewardship Based on Spray Quality, Droplet Sizes, and Drift Potential
Volatility Issues Requiring Stewardship Attention!
Waste-Disposal Program Sustainability (International, U.S.) and Specialty Management Case Studies
Optional one-day workshops, February 27
U.S. Department of Transportation Requirements for Waste Pesticides
Applications and Limitations for Spray-Drift Models
Optional tour, February 24
Sustainability at the Biltmore Estate
Call for papers: Papers should fit within the broad parameters of the conference theme. Abstracts must be submitted by November 15, 2007, by contacting Liza Fleeson, email@example.com, Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Submit abstract (< 250 words), name, affiliation, address, email, phone, paper title, authors, affiliation, and audio-visual needs.
Call for posters: Posters should fit within the broad parameters of the conference theme. Abstracts must be submitted by January 10, 2008, to Carol Ramsay, firstname.lastname@example.org, Washington State University. Submit abstract (< 100 words), name, affiliation, address, email, phone, poster title, authors, and affiliation.
Conference registration: Information is posted on the conference Web site: http://tpsalliance.org. Paper presenters receive a $100 registration fee deduction; poster presenters receive a $50 deduction.
Contact information: The Pesticide Stewardship, 11327 Gravois Road, #201 St. Louis, MO 63126; Web, http://tpsalliance.org; email, Contact@TPSAlliance.org. (Source: Email announcement sent October 12, 2007, from Carol Ramsay, The Pesticide Stewardship Alliance President)