Illinois Pesticide Review
May / June 2010
In This Issue
- NPDES General Permit Comment Period (Editor's note included)
- IDOA Schedules Clean Sweep Collection in Northwest Illinois
- Label Changes Result of Fumigant Misuse and Deaths
- Fumigant Label Changes Coming Soon
- Pesticide Collection Programs – an Overview
- Misuse Case Summary for 2009
- 2010 Container Recycling Schedule Released
- University of Illinois Calibration Calculator
NPDES General Permit Comment Period (Editor's note included)
NOTE: WEBCAST POSTPONED DUE TO TECHNICAL DIFFICULTIES UNTIL THURSDAY, JUNE 24TH AT 12:00 PM CENTRAL.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced the public availability of a draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for point source discharges from the application of pesticides to waters of the United States. This Pesticides General Permit (PGP) was developed in response to a decision by the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals in which the court vacated EPA's 2006 rule that said NPDES permits were not required for applications of pesticides to U.S. waters. EPA estimates that the Sixth Circuit's ruling will affect approximately 365,000 pesticide applicators
nationwide who perform 5.6 million pesticide applications annually.
The draft permit covers the following pesticide uses: (1) mosquito and other flying insect pest control; (2) aquatic weed and algae control; (3) aquatic nuisance animal control; and (4) forest canopy pest control. It does not cover terrestrial applications to control pests on agricultural crops or forest floors. EPA is soliciting public comment on whether additional use patterns should be covered by this general permit. EPA will accept written comments on the draft permit for 45 days after its publication in the Federal Register, that is, through July 19, 2010.
Three public meetings, a public hearing and a webcast will be held to present the proposed requirements of the permit, the basis for those requirements and to answer questions. The public hearings will be held in Albuquerque, NM, Boise, ID, Boston, MA, and Washington, D.C. The webcast will be broadcast on June 24, 2010, from 1:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) – that's 12:00 to 2:00 for us Illinoisans & registration is required.
NPDES permits are issued by the agency within each state that is responsible for enforcing the Clean Water Act. In Illinois, this is the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA). The intent of this PGP is that it will be used as a template by IEPA and similar agencies in other states for their permits, but state agencies can develop their own permits. The general permit concept is intended to make the process easier for all involved. It's important to note that individual state permits may incorporate additional requirements and they may interpret information differently than EPA.
The PGP is also intended to cover pesticide applications near waters. EPA is interpreting this to refer to the unavoidable discharge to waters of the U.S. in order to target pests in close proximity to water, for example, treating weeds along the bank of a ditch though which water is flowing. Stormwater runoff that may contain pesticides is not required to obtain NPDES permit coverage unless it was already required to do so exclusive of the National Cotton Council, et al. v. EPA court case. Existing NPDES stormwater permits for runoff from construction, industrial activities, and municipal separate storm sewers already consider pesticides as part of the permit development process.
In 1987, Congress amended the Clean Water Act to exempt agricultural stormwater and irrigation return flow from NPDES permitting requirements. The Court's ruling does not affect these exemptions. EPA is seeking comment on whether additional pesticide application activities may involve unavoidable point-source discharges to waters of the United States. EPA is requesting comment on whether this general permit should provide coverage for any such activities. If, after considering comments, EPA expands coverage of this permit, the effluent limitations for the additional use patterns would likely be similar to what is being proposed in this draft permit.
An overview of this issue and court case was published in the July/August 2009 issue of the Illinois Pesticide Review Newsletter which is available at: http://web.extension.illinois.edu/ipr/i6172_829.html.
More information on the NPDES General Pesticide Permit, webcast, and public meetings is available at http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/home.cfm?program_id=410 and http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/index.cfm.
(Phil Nixon, added to and modified from the Agriculture and Natural Resources News Forum and EPA websites)
It seems that this EPA announcement (and the whole concept of requiring NPDES permits) has spurred considerably more questions than answers. We in the Pesticide Safety Education Program are currently unclear about the exact scope of this matter and we encourage all pesticide applicators to participate in these sessions, ask questions, and submit comments. This week, I've seen similar announcements from grower groups and professional associations encouraging their members to do the same. Now is your chance to speak up because these matters could affect you.
Currently, the draft permit includes only 4 areas. If an application does not fall into these 4 areas, it does NOT mean that an NPDES permit is not needed. With this comment period, EPA wants to know if they should include other areas (uses/additional use patterns). From discussions at various pesticide meetings this past year, this could include drift from nearby agricultural applications. A recent article in the North Dakota Pesticide Quarterly had this to say, "The general permit is silent when it comes to agricultural uses, although most Clean Water Act experts agree that the court's ruling likely covers uses 'near' water. Some agricultural users also may want to be permitted to protect themselves from citizen lawsuits."
EPA's website reads, "Any use patterns not covered by this proposed draft permit would need to obtain coverage under an individual permit or alternative general permit if they involve pesticide application that result in point source discharges to waters of the United States." Would a revised version of the current PGP be considered an alternative general permit or would it be an entirely different permit? If the latter, how would that be obtained? How is a farmer to know if his application could fall under the definition of a point-source discharge? What is meant exactly by waters of the U.S.? Hopefully, the webcast on June 24th will cover these important questions.
Monitoring, IPM, equipment cleaning schedules, and mandatory calibration and maintenance would be required according to this draft. That in itself is something that applicators should pay careful attention to. These requirements could affect your operation's time investments and finances.
Operators will need to know if their applications will exceed an annual treatment area threshold. What is that threshold? It depends on the number of acres, the number of treatments, and type of site. Those that know they will exceed it, will have to file their NOI (Notice of Intent) and then wait until its receipt is confirmed by EPA before they can apply the pesticide. Additional requirements such as development of a Pesticide Discharge Management Plan and submittal of annual reports are included in this draft PGP for those who know they will exceed the threshold. Emergency pesticide applications can be performed without delay, but an NOI must then be filed.
A violation – intentional or not – of the Clean Water Act could reach up to $37,500/day. Comparatively, FIFRA violations are minimal. Those in violation of the Clean Water Act could be driven out of business fairly quickly. How good is your relationship with your neighbors? Citizen lawsuits will be a very real concern for many.
At this time, the only clear recommendation I have for pesticide users is to get involved and become familiar with the issues at hand. Inclusion in the PGP may provide protection against citizen lawsuits, however, the PGP process is quite involved. For details, read the draft permit at the web address given above. It's no quick read at 58 pages long and neither is the "Fact Sheet" at 116 pages (also on EPA's website). I guess these documents are shorter than the health care bill, but likewise won't be completely read by most. At the very least, check out the "Questions and Answers", which is only 8 pages long.
The Federal Register Notice is filled with intermingled requests for comments on specific topics. At 11 pages in length, it's not so bad. For a shorter, bulleted list that's been paraphrased a bit by the Agricultural Retailers Association, check out: http://www.aradc.org/ (under "news") or http://www.magnetmail.net/actions/email_web_version.cfm?recipient_id=200065621&message_id=1025402&user_id=ARA1 for the direct link.
My prediction is that there will be a great reduction in the number of pesticide applications made to these 4 areas in the upcoming year. Some will choose to simply not apply pesticides at all to avoid these new requirements. Others, in an effort to lessen their requirements, will choose to make only one application if they determine that 2 applications will exceed the threshold. It will be interesting to see the long term effects of all of this.
IDOA Schedules Clean Sweep Collection in Northwest Illinois
Program will safely dispose of unwanted agricultural pesticides
Residents of eight northwestern Illinois counties can dispose of unwanted agrichemicals for free this year through the Illinois Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Pesticide Clean Sweep program.
A Clean Sweep collection has been scheduled in late summer for Carroll, Henry, Jo Daviess, Knox, Mercer, Rock Island, Stephenson, and Whiteside counties, the department announced today. The collection, which rotates among Illinois counties, is open to farmers, retired farmers, nursery owners, private pesticide applicators and landowners who inherited unwanted agricultural pesticides with their property.
"There are two, big reasons to take advantage of this program," Warren Goetsch, bureau chief of Environmental Programs, said. "First, it's free. If individuals were to properly dispose of agrichemicals on their own, the cost would be expensive. But the department is able to provide the service free of charge thanks to a grant it obtained from the U.S. EPA. Second, the state of Illinois, not the program participant, will assume liability for the proper disposal of all materials collected."
Participants must register the products they plan to dispose of by June 25. Registration is required to give the waste disposal contractor time to prepare for the different kinds of materials that will need to be handled. Forms can be obtained either by calling the Illinois Department of Agriculture's Pesticide Hotline at 1-800-641-3934 or visiting one of the program sponsors listed on the next page.
Completed forms should be mailed or faxed to the Illinois Department of Agriculture. The mailing address is: Clean Sweep Program, Illinois Department of Agriculture, State Fairgrounds, P.O. Box 19281, Springfield, IL, 62794-9281. The fax number is (217) 524-4882.
Participants then will be sent a reservation card indicating the date, time and location of their collection.
(Source: Press release from the Illinois Department of Agriculture, April 2010)
Clean Sweep Sponsors Carroll County Farm Bureau 811 S. Clay St. Mt. Carroll, IL 61053-9770 Carroll County SWCD 807C S. Clay St. Mt. Carroll, IL 61053 Carroll County Extension Unit 807D S. Clay St. Mt. Carroll, IL 61053 Henry County Farm Bureau 114 N. East St. Cambridge, IL 61238-1157 Henry County SWCD 301 E. North St. Cambridge, IL 61238 Henry County Extension Unit 26234 Black Hawk Rd. Galva, IL 61434 Jo Daviess County Farm Bureau 212 N. Main St. P.O. Box 501 Elizabeth, IL 61028-0501 Jo Daviess County SWCD P.O. Box 502 Elizabeth, IL 61028 Jo Daviess County Extension Unit 204 Vine P.O. Box 600 Elizabeth, IL 61028 Knox County SWCD 233 S. Soangetaha Rd. Galesburg, IL 61401 Knox County Extension Unit 180 S. Soangetaha Rd., Suite 108 Galesburg, IL 61401-5595 Mercer County Farm Bureau 206 S.E. Third St. P.O. Box 40 Aledo, IL 61231-0040 Mercer County SWCD 308 S.E. 8th Ave. Aledo, IL 61231 Mercer County Extension Unit 702 S.E. Third St. Aledo, IL 61231 Rock Island County Farm Bureau 1601 52nd Ave., Suite 3 Moline, IL 61265-6389 Rock Island County SWCD 3020 E. 1st Ave. Milan, IL 61624 Rock Island County Extension Unit 321 W. 2nd Ave. Milan, IL 61624 Stephenson County Farm Bureau 210 W. Spring St. Freeport, IL 61032-4346 Stephenson County SWCD 1620 S. Galena Ave. Freeport, IL 61032 Stephenson County Extension Unit 2998 W. Pearl City Rd. Freeport, IL 61032
Clean Sweep Sponsors
Carroll County Farm Bureau
811 S. Clay St.
Mt. Carroll, IL 61053-9770
Carroll County SWCD
807C S. Clay St.
Mt. Carroll, IL 61053
Carroll County Extension Unit
807D S. Clay St.
Mt. Carroll, IL 61053
Henry County Farm Bureau
114 N. East St.
Cambridge, IL 61238-1157
Henry County SWCD
301 E. North St.
Cambridge, IL 61238
Henry County Extension Unit
26234 Black Hawk Rd.
Galva, IL 61434
Jo Daviess County Farm Bureau
212 N. Main St.
P.O. Box 501
Elizabeth, IL 61028-0501
Jo Daviess County SWCD
P.O. Box 502
Elizabeth, IL 61028
Jo Daviess County Extension Unit
P.O. Box 600
Elizabeth, IL 61028
Knox County SWCD
233 S. Soangetaha Rd.
Galesburg, IL 61401
Knox County Extension Unit
180 S. Soangetaha Rd., Suite 108
Galesburg, IL 61401-5595
Mercer County Farm Bureau
206 S.E. Third St.
P.O. Box 40
Aledo, IL 61231-0040
Mercer County SWCD
308 S.E. 8th Ave.
Aledo, IL 61231
Mercer County Extension Unit
702 S.E. Third St.
Aledo, IL 61231
Rock Island County Farm Bureau
1601 52nd Ave., Suite 3
Moline, IL 61265-6389
Rock Island County SWCD
3020 E. 1st Ave.
Milan, IL 61624
Rock Island County Extension Unit
321 W. 2nd Ave.
Milan, IL 61624
Stephenson County Farm Bureau
210 W. Spring St.
Freeport, IL 61032-4346
Stephenson County SWCD
1620 S. Galena Ave.
Freeport, IL 61032
Stephenson County Extension Unit
2998 W. Pearl City Rd.
Freeport, IL 61032
Label Changes Result of Fumigant Misuse and Deaths
In our last newsletter issue, I wrote about the recent and unfortunate deaths of two young children in Utah after Fumitoxin (aluminum phosphide) pellets were dropped in burrows along the sidewalk leading to their front porch. The fumigant seeped its way into their house and the whole family was hospitalized. Although the label required a 15-foot distance from any structure that may be occupied by people or animals, especially homes, the application was made much closer than that.
As a result of this terrible event and misuse, EPA announced in April that major changes would be made to these labels and that the approval of these changes will be expedited. Degesch, the primary manufacturer, is voluntarily implementing the changes. Degesch was to provide a new label for Fumitoxin by May 1, 2010, although at this writing I cannot locate it on their website.
These label changes will impact all aluminum and magnesium phosphide products that have not been sold and greatly change the burrowing animals use pattern. All uses for burrowing pests in residential areas will be prohibited on the new labels.
In addition, the buffer zone for use around buildings that are or may be occupied by humans or domestic animals will increase from 15 feet to 100 feet. Posting and fumigant management plans are also required.
For detailed information on these requirements, visit: http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/reregistration/alphosphide/aluminum-magnsm-phos-fs.html.
These expanded restrictions will better protect people from dangerous exposures. Aluminum and magnesium phosphide products for burrowing rodent use are formulated as tablets and pellets that are rapidly transformed to highly toxic phosphine gas when exposed to moisture.
Phosphine fumigants have been associated with accidental poisoning incidents, and their use is restricted to specially trained pesticide applicators. These fumigants are used primarily to control insects in stored grain and other agricultural commodities.
In Illinois, the use of these fumigants for mammal control is not a common practice; however, it is a labeled use and has been done in the past. There have been communications from USEPA that have lead state regulatory officials to believe that these uses may be removed from such labels. EPA plans to begin registration review of aluminum and magnesium phosphide in 2013.(Submitted by Michelle Wiesbrook. Sources: Communications from Oklahoma State University's Pesticide Safety Education Program & EPA.)
Fumigant Label Changes Coming Soon
The information given here is an abbreviated summary of information provided at a soil fumigant training workshop held on May 5, 2010, in Chicago, Illinois.
This current reevaluation of fumigant labels is the first comprehensive reevaluation since these fumigants were first registered. The products that are being reevaluated are methyl bromide (which is being slowly removed from general use but will be available for specific "special uses"), chloropicrin, dazomet, and metam sodium/metam potassium. Amended REDs (Registration Eligibility Decisions) were issued in June 2009 and included measures to mitigate/reduce risks from fumigant pesticides. The first set of changes will be implemented through product labels due December 1, 2010, for use in 2011. The second set of changes, which include buffer zone requirements, will occur on Dec 1, 2011, for fumigant applications in 2012.
The goals of these label changes include 1) protecting bystanders and workers while maintaining the main benefits of the fumigants use, 2) providing a more level "playing field" for all soil fumigants and 3) reflecting "real-world" risk management decision situations.
To mitigate/reduce fumigant risks, the EPA wants to reduce potential direct exposure to toxic concentrations; reduce the likelihood of accidents and error; encourage planning and compliance; and assure an appropriate response to any exposure that may occur. Mitigation measures include:
• new good agricultural practices (GAPs)
• rate reductions
• site limitations
• handler respiratory protection (a handler is defined as a person who is in the application block any time from the start of the fumigant application to the entry-restricted period ends, and a person that is in the buffer zone at anytime from the start of the application until the buffer zone period ends)
• tarp perforation & removal restrictions
• re-entry restrictions
• training information for workers
• fumigant management plans (FMPs)
• first responder outreach
• applicator training
• buffer zones
• restrictions near difficult-to-evacuate sites:
- schools (preschool to 12th grade)
- state-licensed daycare centers
- nursing homes
- assisted-living facilities
- in-patient clinics
• emergency preparedness & response
• registrant-provided training
• information and community outreach programs
• RUP (Restrict Use Pesticide) classification for dazomet and metam sodium/metam potassium.
Sign posting will include posting the application block and the buffer zones. What needs to be on the sign depends on whether it is for the application block or the buffer. It should be noted that protection from and posting for fumigants are similar to but also different from WPS regulations.
At the time of writing this article, the training material that must be provided to handlers is still being reviewed for approval.
All new fumigant requirements will be part of the label. For all of this information to be included, the labels will be an estimated 30 to 35 pages in length. Compliance monitoring will be part of normal-use inspections. In 2013, new evaluations of the soil fumigants will start under EPA's Registration Review Program.
How many pounds of fumigants are used in this country? According to the data provided at the workshop, approximately 98,190,000 lbs of five fumigants was used on 11 vegetable and small fruit crops from 2006 to 2008. USEPA did not list Illinois as a user state, because so few pounds of any fumigant were used during this time frame.
(Submitted by Jim Schuster)
Pesticide Collection Programs – an Overview
While participating in The Pesticide Stewardship Alliance 10th Annual Conference in February, I had the pleasure to meet Eric Laut of Veolia ES Technical Solutions, LLC (Veolia).
Eric's company specializes in the collection and disposal of unwanted pesticides. I was impressed to learn that pesticide collection programs are thoroughly planned and well coordinated events where everything is properly labeled and accounted for. It's much more involved than simply showing up unannounced with a truckload of chemicals for disposal. Surprises and chaos are simply avoided by requiring registration in advance. Truly, they have these collections down to a fine science. The diagram shown here gives testament to this. Eric was kind enough to share with us the following information about what pesticide collection programs involve.
• These programs are sponsored by the states and local units of government, and typically funded through pesticide registration and applicator fees. The Illinois Department of Agriculture sponsors pesticide collection programs in the State of Illinois. Funding is limited, so only a few counties per year will have the opportunity to participate in the pesticide collection programs. More information about this year's Clean Sweep Collection can be found in this newsletter.
• Millions of pounds of banned, cancelled, suspended, expired, unwanted, unused and unstable pesticides have been collected through pesticide collection programs in many states across the country. Often these products are stored for long periods of time, and their containers develop leaks, which may lead to health and environmental problems.
• The collection of pesticides from farms, co-ops, golf courses, and other sources of pesticide generation has diverted these toxic, corrosive, flammable and sometimes reactive chemicals from contaminating waterways and underground aquifers and have reduced exposure and safety concerns on the farm and in the home.
• Veolia has been the leader in pesticide collection services since the 1980s. Typically, Veolia is hired by the state or county to perform pesticide collection services, which include:
- Development of a Health and Safety Plan
- Coordination of collection site activities with fire and police departments
- Mobilization of chemists and technicians to the pesticide collection site
- Collection Site Setup (see chart)
- Participant surveys
- Offloading of pesticides from vehicles
- Segregating pesticides into hazard classes
- Packaging of pesticides into containers for shipment
- Preparation of hazard labels and hazardous waste manifests
- Loading collected pesticides into Veolia trucks
- Site tear-down
- Demobilization of Veolia teams
- Transportation and disposal
(primarily via high temperature incineration) of collected pesticides
• While Veolia will typically contract with state or local units of government, Veolia also can be hired by farms, co-ops and other entities to provide pesticide services. These services include: remediation, overpacking leaking drums, waste identification, spill cleanup and transportation and disposal of pesticides. Costs vary with waste types and quantities.
For further information regarding pesticide collection programs and services, please contact:
Veolia ES Technical Solutions, LLC
(Submitted by Michelle Wiesbrook)
Misuse Case Summary for 2009
Through early December 2009, 91 pesticide misuse complaints had been filed with the Illinois Department of Agriculture, of which 89 investigation reports had been submitted for review. Of these 89 cases submitted for review, 52 cases were closed with no evidence of pesticide misuse.
The remaining 37 cases resulted in 34 warning letters being issued and eight administrative hearings being scheduled for violations of the Illinois Pesticide Act (six applicator license violations) and the Lawn Care Products Application and Notice Act.
These are fewer than the previous two years. In 2008, 115 complaints resulted in 30 warning letters and 17 administrative hearings. In 2007, 117 complaints resulted in 42 warning letters and 25 administrative hearings.
(Submitted by Phil Nixon, based on information from an Illinois Department of Agriculture report.)
2010 Container Recycling Schedule Released
The Agrichemical Container Recycling Schedule has been released for 2010. It can be accessed at: http://www.agr.state.il.us/Environment/recycle.html.
There are four permanent collection sites in Illinois, located at Carrollton, Heyworth, Monmouth, and Lawrenceville. In addition, there will be 30 single-day collection sites across the state ranging from August 2 to September 3. Please see the website for specific locations and contact information. You can also call the Illinois Department of Agriculture at 1-800-641-3934. Last year, 44,660 pounds were collected, which equates to approximately 65,000 containers.
(Submitted by Michelle Wiesbrook)
University of Illinois Calibration Calculator
The Calibration Calculator is designed to provide answers to commonly needed calibration questions. It is a Microsoft Excel workbook with several worksheets designed to be used on a computer or any handheld device that can run Excel, such as a Windows Mobile devices, BlackBerries, and iPhones. The Calibration Calculator is free, and can be downloaded here: http://web.extension.illinois.edu/psep/facts/
There are seven separate worksheets on the Calibration Calculator:
1. Nozzle calib acres: intended to assist with calibrating a sprayer based on a single nozzle for applications where area is measured in acres. There are two tables, one for determining the required nozzle flow rate in gallons per minute and fluid ounces per minute, and one for determining the gallons applied per acre when using a nozzle with a specific flow rate.
2. Nozzle calib sq ft: intended to assist with calibrating a sprayer based on a single nozzle for applications where area is measured in 1,000 square feet (sq ft). There are two tables identical to the ones on the previous worksheet except area is measured in 1,000 square feet instead of acres.
3. Boom calib: intended for applications where it is more feasible to calibrate based on the flow rate for the entire boom instead of individual nozzles, although the worksheet does allow the flow rate to be split into individual nozzles. This worksheet is useful for aerial applicators, right-of-way applicators using boomless nozzles, and other applications where the swath width is the desired way to measure effective sprayed width.
4. Pressure-GPM: this worksheet has two tables on it. The first allows you to calculate the pressure required to operate a nozzle to achieve the desired flow rate. The second table allows you to determine what the flow rate for a nozzle will be when it is operated at a desired pressure.
5. Req speed: this worksheet calculates the required ground speed in order to spray at a specific gallons per acre application rate with a specific nozzle flow rate. It can be used to determine the speed at which you need to spray if you can't alter your nozzle flow rate. It can also be used to determine the upper and lower speed limits for a specific nozzle based on the nozzle's pressure range.
6. Speed calc: calculates ground speed in miles per hour based on the time taken in seconds to travel a course of known distance measured in feet. This is useful if your sprayer does not have a speedometer, you need to test the accuracy of a speedometer, or if the speedometer is known to be inaccurate. Remember to carry out the test on terrain similar to what you will be spraying.
7. Conversions: this worksheet contains a variety of conversions that might be encountered while calibrating a sprayer or tank mixing.
The top of each worksheet has the name of the worksheet on it as well as a reminder of what the yellow and green cells mean. On each worksheet, cells highlighted in grey list the variables used in the table.
Cells highlighted in yellow indicate information that needs to be entered by the applicator. Cells highlighted in green indicate an automatically calculated answer based on the values entered in the yellow cells.
Note that for all tables, a value of "#DIV/0" or "0" will show in the green cell. This will change once you have entered all of the required data in the yellow cells. Above each table is a description of what the table should be used for, and beneath each table is a brief explanation of the variables used in the table.
The following examples will help highlight how some of the Calibration Calculator worksheets can be used.
Example 1: Using the Nozzle calib acres worksheet to calculate a required flow rate.
You need to make a 10 GPA application. You operate your sprayer at 13 mph and you have nozzle spacing of 20 inches. To determine the required flow rate, enter the above information into the yellow cells to the right of each variable for the table with "use this table to calculate the required nozzle flow rate in gallons per minute" above it.
For instance, to the right of "W (inches)" you would enter "20". Once you have entered all of the variables, the required flow rate of 0.44 will appear in the green cell. Directly below is the same flow rate in fluid ounces per minute, 56.
Note that in order for the answer to appear in the green cell, you will need to click out of the last yellow cell for which you entered data in order for the formula to run and an answer to appear in the green cell.
Example 2: Using the Nozzle calib acres worksheet to calculate the GPA when using nozzles with a specific flow rate.
You will be making an application at 7 mph with nozzles that are spaced 15 inches apart and have a flow rate of 0.25 GPM. To determine what your spray application rate will be in gallons per acre, enter the above information into the yellow cells to the right of each variable for the table with "use this table to calculate the application rate in gallons per acre" above it. After entering the all of the required data in the yellow cells, the answer of 14.1 GPA will appear in the green cell.
Note: the two tables in the Nozzle calib sq ft worksheet are used in the exact same manner as described in examples 1 and 2 except area is measured in 1,000 square feet instead of acres.
Example 3: Using the Boom calib worksheet to determine the required flow rate for an off-center nozzle used on a boomless sprayer.
You need to make a 40 GPA application at 7 mph using an off-center nozzle that will be set up to spray a 15-foot swath width. You can use the first table (on the left) of the Boom calib worksheet to determine the required flow rate for this application. Enter 15 in the yellow cell next to swath width, 7 in the yellow cell next to speed, and 40 in the yellow cell next to GPA. The required flow rate of 8.48 GPM will appear in the green cell.
The bottom two variables in this table can be used to set up a sprayer with multiple off-center nozzles. This table can also be used to calibrate an agricultural aircraft, and the table on the right can be used to assist with this calibration if two nozzle orifice sizes are required to make the application.
Example 4: Using the Pressure-GPM worksheet to calculate the required pressure to achieve a necessary flow rate.
Based on example 1, you have determined you need a flow rate of 0.44 GPM to make the application. You have selected an XR11004 nozzle for your sprayer. The XR indicates the nozzle is an extended range nozzle.
The first three digits indicate it has a fan angle of 110 degrees at 40 psi. The last two digits indicate the flow rate at 40 psi – placing a decimal point between the digits shows this nozzle has a flow rate of 0.4 GPM.
You need to determine what pressure this tip should be operated at in order to provide the 0.44 GPM you need. Use the table with the heading "Use this table to determine the pressure needed for a nozzle to produce a specific flow rate". In the yellow cell to the right of "Known PSI", enter 40. For "Known GPM" enter 0.4, and enter 0.44 for "Desired GPM".
The correct answer of 48 PSI appears in the green cell, indicating you need to operate this nozzle at this pressure in order to generate a flow rate of 0.44 GPM.
Example 5: Using the Pressure-GPM and Req speed worksheets to determine the upper speed limit for the XR11004 nozzle when using an automatic spray rate controller.
The XR11004 nozzle used for the scenarios in examples 1 and 4 has an upper pressure limit of 60 psi and should not be operated above this pressure. You can use the Req speed worksheet to determine the speed at which this pressure will be required to maintain the 10 GPA. First, you need to determine the nozzle flow rate for the XR11004 nozzle at 60 psi.
You can use the second table, on the right, on the Pressure-GPM worksheet to determine this flow rate. For known GPM and PSI, enter 4.0 and 40 respectively. The desired PSI will be 60, the maximum pressure at which this nozzle should be operated. The green cell will show a flow rate of 0.49 GPM.
In the Req speed worksheet, enter a 20 for W (20 inch nozzle spacing as described in Example 1), the 0.49 for nozzle GPM you just calculated, and the 10 GPA, also from example 1. The speed at which this nozzle will need to be operated at 60 psi in order to maintain the 10 GPA is shown in the green cell: 14.5 mph. The XR11004 should not be operated at speeds exceeding 14.5 mph or the upper pressure limit will be exceeded.
As stated earlier, this Excel workbook can be used on either a computer or any handheld device that supports Excel. You may need to adjust font size, zoom level, color, or other parameters in order to make it functional on your individual smart phone.
I have kept the zoom set at 100% for use on a computer, but readjust it on my Windows Mobile phone to 50% so I can see all of the tables. I have only used it on a Windows Mobile device, so I do not know how well it will work on other smart phone operating systems.
Finally, an important note on file saving. After using the workbook, when you go to close it out, Excel will ask you if you wish to save changes. To maintain the original workbook with no data entered, select no. If you wish to save your work, I suggest renaming the file so that you still have an original copy of the worksheet with no data entered.
Please provide any feedback, including compatibility problems, complaints, functions to add, etc. on the Calibration Calculator to me at either email@example.com or (217) 722-2212. In the future I intend to add additional worksheets to help with tank mixing calculations.
(Submitted by Scott Bretthauer.)