Illinois Pesticide Review
March / April 2016
In This Issue
New Publication on Laundering Pesticide-Contaminated Work Clothes
Laundry. It's a necessary evil for most of us, unfortunately. If you are a pesticide applicator, the importance of clean clothes is particularly important as work clothes can become contaminated with pesticides as part of the handling, loading, mixing, and application process. Contaminated clothing can lead to pesticide poisoning.
Much research was conducted in the 1980s to determine how to best launder pesticide-contaminated work clothes. Although those recommendations remain, we would be remiss to ignore the fact that much has changed over the years with washing machines, fabrics, detergents, and pesticide formulations. Clearly there is a need for updated research.
With this in mind, North Central Region Pesticide Safety Educators recently released a new eight-page color publication that discusses the topic at length. The publication was a collaboration among Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska and North Dakota. The effort was made possible via a grant from the NC Region Cooperative Extension Association Directors.
Paper copies are available at our Pesticide Safety training clinics. A PDF version is available at the following URL:
The publication is full of good tips, reminders, and considerations that go beyond the short and sweet points you are likely familiar with, such as "wash separately from other household laundry". The section on "Additional Points to Consider" is especially interesting as it discusses the trends in washing.
Are high efficiency machines or machines without agitators effective in removing contaminants? What about models that don't offer high-temperature washes or rinses? Water-dissolvable pouches and pods are convenient but are they as effective? These factors have not been evaluated for efficacy in removing pesticides from contaminated clothing.
On a side note, I recently saw firsthand what can go wrong with an HE washer, a detergent pod, and a white comforter. All of the detergent ended up in one small blue blob on the blanket. That's where it remained when the cycle was done. The owner said it's a common problem. Certainly, these laundry "advancements" should be important considerations when laundering work clothes.
Michelle Wiesbrook (mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org)
Goodbye to Scott Bretthauer
After being a member of the University of Illinois Pesticide Safety Education Program for over 12 years, Scott Bretthauer is moving on to a new career opportunity. Scott started with the PSEP team in September of 2003, serving as the team's expert in pesticide application technology. Scott worked in the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering.
Scott served as coordinator of the Private PSEP program for several years before the reorganization of University of Illinois Extension that resulted in the program being conducted from campus instead of on a more local basis. During the later part of his time at the University of Illinois, Scott became more active in research programs focused on increasing both the efficacy and safety of pesticide applications.
This research worked with both ground and aerial applications and involved both application equipment technology and spray adjuvants. Of particular note, he tested many types of nozzle setups and adjuvants used with aerial applications, and evaluated drift reduction technologies for applications of dicamba and glyphosate.
Scott was actively involved in agricultural aviation. He conducted both education and research programs related to this industry. He has been and will continue to be an active member of the National Agricultural Aviation Association, serving on several committees that work on safety education programs for agricultural aviators.
Scott is an Operation S.A.F.E. analyst, and has conducted S.A.F.E. fly-ins for Illinois as well as in several other states including Wisconsin, North Carolina, Montana, Florida, Iowa, Indiana, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Texas, North Dakota, Georgia, and Idaho. S.A.F.E. stands for Self-Regulating Application and Flight Efficiency, and a fly-in is a clinic where an agricultural aircraft has its spray pattern and droplet size measured and evaluated.
In addition to the NAAA, Scott was also a member of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers and the American Association of Pesticide Safety Educators. Besides covering the subjects of application technology, drift mitigation, and equipment calibration at PSEP clinics, Scott gave talks throughout the country on making safe, accurate, and effective pesticide applications.
Scott's new endeavor will be with the Wilbur-Ellis Company, where he will serve as their Agronomy Risk Manager. He will be based out of his home office in Champaign, Illinois, but will spend a great deal of time traveling to the various ground and aerial application branches Wilbur-Ellis operates throughout the country. He is very excited about this new opportunity, but will miss working with his PSEP team members and the professional relationships he has developed during his time at the University of Illinois.
The PSEP Team
Mosquitoes and Zika Virus
Aedes albopictus adult on skin
Zika virus has been in the news through the winter and several cases have been found in people in Illinois who apparently picked up the virus during foreign travel. This leads to concerns about the health of pesticide applicators, farmers, landscapers, and others this summer when mosquitoes become prevalent.
Zika virus can be transmitted between people in several ways, but of major concern is vectoring by mosquitoes. The main vector of Zika virus is the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. This is a tropical to subtropical mosquito that does not survive our freezing Illinois winters. It could survive in Illinois during the summer if it was accidentally introduced but would die out during the winter.
Another known vector, Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, does occur in Illinois. Asian tiger mosquito is apparently a less effective vector or transmitter of Zika virus. This mosquito does survive Illinois winters as eggs and is found sporadically in Illinois south of Interstate 80. It is also present in Cook County.
Both mosquitoes lay their eggs on damp surfaces above standing water containing decaying organic matter, develop as larvae and pupae in water, and bite during the day, particularly in late afternoon. Neither flies very far, typically less than one-quarter mile. For this reason, residents can greatly reduce their likelihood of getting Zika virus by the neighborhood elimination of breeding sites.
Cleaning out gutters, replacing water in birdbaths and wading pools weekly, stocking minnows or other fish other than koi in ornamental ponds, and eliminating or drilling drainage holes in old tires, tin cans, abandoned cars, and ceramic pots will eliminate these mosquitoes' breeding sites. These mosquitoes can develop in as little as one cup of water. Repairing window screens keeps out adult mosquitoes.
Workers can protect themselves by applying mosquito repellents containing DEET, picaridin, or lemongrass oil. Mosquitoes bite through thin clothing so application to clothing may be needed as well as skin protection. The northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens pipiens, lives in similar locations, and the same practices help prevent transmission of West Nile Virus.
Most people who get Zika virus will have no symptoms. About 20% have mild symptoms including fever, achy joints, conjunctivitis (pink eye), and a skin rash. Symptoms typically occur 2 to 7 days following the bite from an infected mosquito. More severe symptoms, including paralysis, may occur in some individuals. Researchers are investigating the link between the Zika virus and birth defects including microcephaly, abnormally small heads in fetuses and babies that result in death or mental deficiencies.
Additional information can be obtained from the Zika Virus National Pest Alert published at the North Central IPM web site: http://ncipmc.org/action/alerts/zika.php. Revisions of this pest alert are expected as additional information becomes available on this new threat.
Phil Nixon (mailto:email@example.com)
New Fungicide Active Ingredients Available for 2016
Two new fungicide active ingredients will be available for growers in 2016: Benzovindiflupyr and Oxathiapiprolin. Both received approval in 2015, and will be marketed by Syngenta. The new active ingredients offer additional choices disease management programs.
Benzovindiflupyr is a Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide. In general, SDHI fungicides work by disrupting energy production in the fungal cell, eventually causing it to shut down and die. SDHI fungicides have been assigned to FRAC Group 7 by the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC). Other common fungicides within this group include: boscalid, fluopyram, flutolanil, fluxapuroxad, penthiopyrad. The following products are registered for use in Illinois:
Trivapro is sold as a combination of separately registered products: Trivapro A (benzovindiflupyr) and Trivapro B (propiconazole (FRAC Code 3) + azoxystrobin (FRAC Group 11)). Trivapro™ is labeled to control of rust, leaf spot and powdery mildew diseases on cereals, corn, and soybeans.
Aprovia is labeled to control rust, leaf spot and powdery mildew disease on lowbush Blueberries, grapes, pome fruits.
Aprovia Top contains a combination of two fungicides: Benzovindiflupyr + Difenconazole (FRAC Group 3) the product is labeled to control leaf spot and powdery mildew diseases on lowbush blueberries, cucurbit vegetables, and fruiting vegetables.
Mural is broad-spectrum fungicide approved for use on a variety of diseases in ornamental crops grown in greenhouses, shade-houses, lath houses, outdoor nurseries, retail nurseries, commercial landscapes and vegetable transplants. Mural contains two fungicides – azoxystrobin (FRAC Group 11) and benzovindiflupyr (FRAC Group 7)
Oxathiapiprolin has been assigned to FRAC Group U-15. The active ingredient is believed to inhibit oxysterol binding proteins and is effective against a range of oomycete pathogens. Oxathiapiprolin acts on a single mode of action resulting in a medium to high resistance risk. To reduce the risk of fungicide resistance, products containing oxathiapiprolin should be used as part of a disease management program that includes rotation and/or tank mixing with fungicides with a different mode of action. The following products are registered for use in Illinois:
Segovis is labeled for use on ornamental plants grown in greenhouses, outdoor growing structures (including shade houses, lath houses and other outdoor growing structures), and nurseries and outdoor ornamental plants grown in commercial landscapes. Foliar applications provide control of diseases caused by downy mildews and Phytophthora spp. Segovis can also be applied as a drench to plants grown in containers and in-ground for control of root and stem diseases caused by Phytophthora spp.
Orondis is marketed as three multi-packs, each containing separately registered products.
Orondis Ridomil Gold SL® fungicide (Oxathiapiprolin + Mefenoxam (FRAC Group 4)) for control of soil-borne Oomycete diseases in vegetables and tobacco
Orondis Opti® fungicide (Oxathiapiprolin + Chlorothalonil (FRAC Group M)) for control of downy mildew and late blight in potatoes and vegetables
Orondis Ultra® fungicide (Oxathiapiprolin + Mandipropamid (FRAC Group 40)) for control of downy mildew and late blight in leafy vegetables (lettuce and spinach), potatoes, tobacco and other vegetables
Please note: The content of this article is provided for information purposes only and does not indicate endorsement of the products mentioned.