The Pros and Cons of Mulch
This article was originally published on July 1, 2012 and expired on August 1, 2012. It is provided here for archival purposes and may contain dated information.
You may not find the phrase "mulch volcanoes" in the dictionary, said a University of Illinois Extension horticulture educator, but the concept has been gaining ground and can create problems.
"To landscapers, arborists and gardeners, this is a phenomenon that wasn't so prevalent years ago," said Martha Smith. "In recent years, people have begun mounding mulch around the base of trees creating the 'mulch volcano.' New problems have emerged because of this practice," said Smith.
"Tree bark is meant to protect the trunk. It works best in the air and light. If you pile mulch onto the bark, it is now exposed to dark and moisture. Bark will begin to rot, and rotted bark cannot protect the tree from insects and diseases. In fact, diseases grow better in this type of environment."
Smith said mulch breakdown can produce heat - with a compost pile reaching temperatures above 140 degrees Fahrenheit. Mulch piled high around the tree trunk can get hot. This heat may directly kill the inner bark/phloem layer of young trees, or may prevent the natural hardening-off period that plants must go through in the fall in preparation for the winter.
"Mulch piled around the trunk promotes the growth of secondary roots, which can encircle the trunk and choke off the trees main roots," she cautioned. "Some trees, such as maples, have shallow roots and deep mulch encourages these roots to grow into it.
"A mountain of mulch piled high against a tree trunk will not kill the tree immediately - it results in slow death. Homeowners don't associate their actions with tree decline several years after they overmulched a tree."
There are positive reasons to mulch, Smith added.
"Mulching helps maintain moisture. Evaporation is reduced, and the need for watering can be minimized," she said. "It also helps control weeds. A mulch layer will suppress weeds from germinating at the soil line. Remember, lawn mower clippings blown onto mulch and animals may bring in weed seeds that may germinate on top of the mulch."
Mulch serves as nature's insulating blanket. Many organic types of mulch can improve soil aeration, structure (aggregation of soil particles) and drainage over time as they decompose.
"Mulching also lowers maintenance needs and can reduce the likelihood of damage from lawn and weed trimmers when the equipment gets too close," she said. "Mulch can give planting beds a uniform, well-cared for look."
Mulch should be between 2 to 4 inches deep. Often, when applied, it appears deeper, but after settling you should end up with a 2-inch matted layer.
"Organic mulches include wood chips, pine needles, hardwood or softwood bark, cocoa hulls, leaves, compost mixes, and a variety of other products usually derived from plants," said Smith. "Organic mulches decompose in the landscape at different rates, depending on the material.
"Those that decompose faster must be replenished more often. Herein lies the problem. Some mulches, such as cypress mulch, remain intact for years, but they turn a gray-tan color. People prefer the "fresh" look of new mulch and top dress annually, not considering the existing mulch depth," she said.
Deep mulch, she added, can lead to excess moisture in the root zone, leading to root rot and insect and disease problems. If mulch is too heavy, you can deprive the roots of oxygen and greatly reduce the soil's ability to dry out. Thick layers of fine mulch can become matted and may prevent the penetration of water and air, whereas anaerobic "sour" mulch may give off odors.
Source: Martha A. Smith, Extension Educator, Horticulture, email@example.com
Pull date: August 1, 2012