Raspberries belong to the genus Rubus, which is a part of the Rose family. Cultivated raspberries have been derived mainly from two species, the wild red raspberry (Rubus ideaus) and black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). Purple type is a cross between the black and red raspberry, and yellow type is a mutant red raspberry. Raspberries' underground root stem and crown are perennial, and canes from underground buds are biennial. Primocanes (first year canes) and floricanes (canes in second year). There are over 200 species of raspberries. Raspberries can be grown from the Arctic to the equator. Receptacle remains on plant when fruit is harvested leaving a hole at the bottom of the fruit.
When buying plants, buy disease-free plants. You can buy dormant suckers(bare rooted, tip-layered canes or actively growing tissue-cultured plants). Order plants in fall or early winter for spring planting. Specify a shipping date.
Raspberry Planting Systems:
Spacing and Trellising of Raspberry:Trellis is a supporting open frame used for training raspberries. Trellising affects plant growth rate, competition with suckers, harvesting methods, fruit quantity and quality, disease and insect pest management.
Primocane fruiting types (first year canes bear fruits) - Fruits produced on tops of long canes tend to lean to ground hence need support, temporary trellising during harvesting to facilitate movement between plant rows. T-trellis is commonly used. A T-trellis consists of a T-shaped wooden or metal posts, seven foot long, and three foot long cross arms with screw eyes for holding twine rope or wire. The post is set up into a three foot deep hole in the center of each row, which is slightly wider than the post diameter. A 3 foot PVC pipe can be set into the hole immediately after they are dug to prevent them from collapsing. The holes are dug 25-30 feet a part within rows. The posts can be removed and used the following year while the burried PVC pipe left in the ground. Canes are cut close to the ground after harvest in late summer.
Floricane fruiting types (second year canes bear fruits) - Canes remain intact in winter through the next growing season, needs support for both floricanes and primocanes, V-trellis is commonly used to separate fruiting and vegetative canes. V-trellis consists of two posts placed on the ground at 20-30 degree angle opposite each other at the outer margins of the plant row forming a V-shaped structure. Floricanes are tied to the outside and primocanes grow in the middle of the V-shape. Floricanes are cut after harvest. Primocanes that will bear fruits the following year are thinned to avoid competition.
Soil and Site Requirements - Raspberries perform very well in deep well-drained, loam soils, with good water holding capacity and high organic matter content.Roots can grow up to 4 feet depth. Use drip irrigation during summer because it prevents wetting of the foliage, flowers and fruit. Raspberries require 1-2 inches of water per week or 35 gallons per 100 feet of row per day. They also require full sunlight exposure,good air circulation within the canopy but not excessive wind. Plant in elevated areas away from trees and buildings, andaway from wild brambles to avoid viral diseases. Avoid verticillium wilt by planting raspberries where eggplants, tomatoes, strawberries, and potatoes have not been planted for the last five years.
Additional pests and problems that may affect this plant:Insects: