Illinois Pesticide Review
In This Issue
Revised WPS How to Comply Manual
The Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides How to Comply Manual has been updated to reflect amendments to the Worker Protection Standard (WPS), a regulation designed to protect agricultural workers and pesticide handlers. The WPS contains requirements for pesticide-safety training, notification of pesticide applications, use of personal protective equipment, restricted-entry intervals following pesticide application, decontamination supplies, and emergency medical assistance. The revised manual provides detailed information on who is covered by the WPS and how to meet regulatory requirements. The updated manual facilitates better protection of pesticide workers and handlers in agriculture from the potential risks of pesticides.
So what changed?
The revisions to the How to Comply (HTC) Manual incorporate the 1995, 1996, and 2004 WPS amendments and administrative exceptions, including the
- change in the WPS worker-training requirement that requires untrained workers be provided basic pesticide information before entering pesticide treated areas (revised HTC, pp. 21-22/old HTC, pp. 25-26);
- reduction in the number of days decontamination supplies must be available to workers after application of low-risk pesticides, and the requirement that the supplies are to be located together (pp. 24-25/pp. 29-30);
- modification in the language requirements for treated-area warning signs (p. 34/p. 43);
- modification in the size requirements for treated-area warning signs (p. 35/p. 43);
- early-entry exception for irrigation tasks and for limited-contact tasks (pp. 47-48/pp.59-60);
- optional use of separable glove liners beneath chemical-resistant gloves (p. 65/p. 83);
- optional wearing of gloves by agricultural pilots when entering or leaving aircraft (p. 67/p. 87) and;
- exemption for certified or licensed crop advisors and persons under their direct supervision (pp. 74-79/pp. 95-98).
- Finally, the official name of the HTC manual was changed to How to Comply with the Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides: What Employers Need to Know.
What should I do with my old HTC manual?
It took me a long time to become familiar with and mark up my old HTC manual, and I don't part with familiar things easily. However, I can think of at least two good reasons we should all discard the old manual in favor of the new version:
- EPA calls the 1993 version obsolete and warns that the use of the old version may lead an employer to be out of compliance. Though I think it's easier to make the argument that the old version is more likely to lead an employer to be overcompliant, I'm not a lawyer.
- The revised manual is 13-pages shorter and printed on modern, white paper rather than ancient, yellow papyrus. Seriously, though, most of the sections are more clearly written now than they were in the first version. I would expect no less after 12 years of critical review and criticism. There is at least one notable exception; the section dealing with crop advisors (pp. 74-79) is now quite confusing. It was both humorous and sad to read the following exchange during the revision process. Comment: "While I agree that greater clarity and focus was needed for crop advisor roles and responsibilities, the new language seems excessive and complicated." Response from revision workgroup: "We agree that this is complex and difficult to understand. However, it accurately reflects the current WPS crop advisor provisions." My suggestion is to simply refer to the new summary table on page 80! Similarly, check out the new summary table of early-entry requirements on pages 50-51.
Where can I get a new HTC manual?
Back in 1993, when the WPS was new, the EPA printed an enormous quantity of the HTC manuals and shipped an enormous quantity to each state for further distribution. Well, EPA is using the same distribution process today, but in a much scaled-down fashion. In December, each state lead agency (in Illinois, the Illinois Department of Agriculture) received an inadequate supply of the HTC manual in paper form, as well as on compact disk. Despite many warnings to the contrary, the EPA anticipates that most employers will print their own copies of the HTC manual from the CD or from the Internet (http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/htc.html).
So, your options are to
- Visit the EPA's Web site (http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/htc.html) and print the 141-page HTC manual (available as a single document and by chapters). Alternatively, or in addition, you can print the two-page "WPS Quick Reference Guide," summarizing the maximum WPS requirements.
- Contact Scott Frank, (217)785-2427, with the Illinois Department of Agriculture for a free copy of the HTC manual (print or on CD). Supplies are limited.
- Each University of Illinois Extension Unit office will receive the HTC manual (one CD and fewer than 10 printed copies) for reproduction, loan, and/or distribution as the local staff deems appropriate.
- EPA has informed us that some of the major personal protection equipment and ag/hort supply companies (such as Gemplers) are planning to sell the HTC manual.
Are there advantages to getting the HTC manual on CD-ROM?
The CD version of the HTC manual from EPA contains several additional compliance-assistance tools not available with the printed version:
- EPA's WPS Worker Training Handbook (in English/Spanish) [not revised]
- EPA's WPS Handler Training Handbook (in English and in Spanish) [not revised]
- 13 additional WPS fact sheets
- EPA's Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings Handbook
- Several other related references.
To order the HTC manual on CD-ROM with additional resources, please contact the EPA's National Ag Compliance Assistance Center at email@example.com or by calling the toll-free number (1-888-663-2155). When ordering, please use EPA document number EPA 305-C-05-001.
(Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. How to Comply with the Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides: What Employers Need to Know. <http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/htc.html> Accessed January 11, 2006.)
(Bruce E. Paulsrud)
Mosquito-misting systems are outdoor, time-release systems utilizing a series of plastic tubing lines and spray nozzles to distribute insecticide throughout an individual backyard, primarily for mosquito control. These systems are increasing in popularity among homeowners, but there remains concerns by EPA and state regulators regarding the certification of equipment installers, pesticide product labeling for such applications, homeowner liability, consumer access to the insecticide label information, security of on-site chemical containers, insect resistance, advertising claims, acute and chronic health effects, efficacy of the products to control the target pests, nontarget damage, drift to nearby residents, right-to-know outdoor posting of applications in applicable states, and the systems' conflict with Integrated Pest Management principles.
Following is much of the content of a draft "Issue Paper" prepared by the State FIFRA Issues Research and Evaluation Group (SFIREG), to be delivered to EPA. FIFRA refers to the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, the main federal law that regulates pesticide use in the United States. SFIREG consists of representatives of the lead pesticide regulatory agencies of each U.S. state, territory, and Indian tribal organization that work with EPA to ensure a proper working relationship concerning pesticide laws and regulations. In Illinois, the Illinois Department of Agriculture, Illinois Department of Public Health, and University of Illinois Pesticide Safety Education Program have representatives in meetings between SFIREG and EPA.
Due to the growing national public concern over West Nile virus, automated misting systems are being marketed and installed as a method for homeowners to control mosquitoes in and around their homes and property in residential areas. This is extremely troublesome due to a huge potential for exposure to people, pets, wildlife, and the environment from unnecessary and arbitrary pesticide applications.
Problems attributed to the use of these systems in residential areas include
- The systems are often marketed and installed by companies whose employees have no experience or knowledge of pesticides or proper application. Many are not required to obtain commercial pesticide licensing because they only install the equipment and do not "apply" the pesticide, therefore states may have limited abilities to regulate these individuals.
- A number of companies currently utilize the Internet to advertise the service. Photos supplied on these sites show the systems spraying in areas around the home, such as under the eaves or around pools and play structures. Often installation includes areas around the property perimeter without regard for possible consequences on neighboring property. Improper public health protection claims are being made on these sites as well.
- Units are set to automatically mist at timed intervals, causing unnecessary applications to be made that will have no effect on the pest or may cause development of insecticide resistance in the pest population. Different mosquito species fly and search for blood meals at particular times of the 24-hour day. Many mosquito species do not feed on humans or their pets or do not carry diseases to humans or pets. Some mosquitoes feed as larvae on other mosquito larvae, providing biological control of potentially harmful species. Mosquitoes are an important source of food in many eco-systems. Indiscriminate elimination of mosquitoes can impact the ecology and limit the number of songbirds and other wildlife that people enjoy.
- Off-target spray drift is a potential in windy and/or rainy conditions.
- Remote-control units are also available, allowing the application to be "controlled" by children or teens "playing" with the system, causing potential harm to unsuspecting friends or pets.
- The claims by companies installing these systems equate to claims made for the product itself as "safe" and "nontoxic," which is not allowed by EPA to be on labeling.
- Installation of these systems around property that borders areas inhabited by wildlife may draw animals as a watering source if nozzles drip. Birds may perch on installed lines and also use nozzles as a water source. This can result in the poisoning of songbirds and other desirable wildlife.
- The pesticides are sold or provided to the homeowners to "maintain" the system, often without any warning about the need for proper mixing, use, and disposal, or about the potential for harm. This use allows an unmonitored, unnecessary, and often ineffective pesticide application as a means of mosquito control. Recent studies have shown a lack of adequate reading and understanding of pesticide labels by homeowners.
- State vector control departments and Mosquito Abatement Districts are attempting to provide mosquito control through homeowner education and use of IPM techniques such as the elimination of breeding sites, use of larvicides to maintain beneficial insect populations, and other cultural control methods. Use of these systems may discourage homeowners from assisting in effectively addressing and preventing mosquito problems by allowing only a "perceive" or "band-aid" effect through use of these systems. A resistance problem caused by continual applications of the pyrethrum or pyrethroid class of insecticides through automated systems will result in a control failure or use of pesticides with active ingredients with higher concentrations and toxicities.
In Illinois, staff at both the University of Illinois and state agencies feel that the use of mosquito-misting systems should be restricted, if they are used at all, primarily for the reasons listed above. Before purchasing, selling, or maintaining any of these systems, realize there are preferable methods of controlling disease-carrying mosquitoes and that these systems may be endangering human and ecosystem health through their somewhat indiscriminate use of insecticide. For additional information on these systems and the controversy surrounding them, refer to the National Pest Management Association Web site on these devices at http://www.npmapestworld.org/mms/.
For those of you who have had to listen to me talk about application equipment and calibration in General Standards training, you know I spend a great deal of time focused on boom sprayers. I often receive two types of comments related to this focus on boom sprayers: (1) I don't use a boom sprayer, so why do I have to learn that stuff? (2) Does what you just talked about apply to backpack sprayers? In this article, I will try to address those two questions by giving an overview of backpack sprayers, including how to make an application with a backpack sprayer as accurately as possible.
No matter what type of sprayer you use, the pump is a critical component. For many backpack sprayers, pressure is supplied by a hand-operated piston or diaphragm pump. A few strokes of the handle are required to provide the initial pressure, and intermittent strokes (about every 2 or 3 seconds, depending on the flow rate) are required to maintain the pressure. An air chamber helps smooth out pump pulsations. Piston pumps can provide higher pressures, often up to 90 psi, but cannot be used with abrasive formulations. This higher pressure makes them suitable for applications of insecticides and fungicides. Diaphragm pumps cannot provide pressures as high, with an upper limit around 60 psi, but will tolerate abrasive formulations. Diaphragm pumps are most suited for applications where higher outputs are required, such as application of herbicides where a medium or coarse droplet-size spectrum is required. Some newer backpack sprayers have pumps capable of reaching up to 150 psi. Care must be taken when using high pressures because of the increased risk of drift due to the small droplets formed at high pressures.
Proper cleaning and maintenance is important for backpack sprayers with either type of pump, but diaphragm pumps are more difficult to clean thoroughly and can have more maintenance issues. Cleaning is especially critical if you switch between herbicides and insecticides or fungicides. Failure to clean thoroughly can result in unintended damage to plants. Many backpack sprayer manufacturers sell repair and maintenance kits that have all the seals and other parts that are most likely to wear out, causing leakage or breakdown. I recommend ordering these kits for each sprayer you use and having them on hand for any required repairs. Also important are parts and maintenance diagrams to aid in repairs. These can often be downloaded from the manufacturer's or distributor's Web site. Many models of backpack sprayers with either pump design provide hydraulic or mechanical agitation, which is critical for making applications of certain pesticide formulations, such as wettable powders.
As with boom sprayers, nozzles are a critical component of backpack sprayers. Various nozzle types are available, including many of those used on boom sprayers. Nozzles are made of various materials, including stainless steel, plastic, and brass. Brass nozzles wear more rapidly then nozzles made of the other materials; so if you are spraying abrasive materials, it is recommended to use a nozzle made of a more wear-resistant material. Nozzle size and operating pressure should be selected to provide the required droplet spectrum. See the General Standards Manual (SP39) and the January 2004 issue of IPR for more information on droplet size.
Flat-fan nozzles are recommended for many uses, including applications of herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides. They are a good choice for making broadcast applications. Although hollow-cone nozzles are often recommended for applying insecticides and fungicides, they commonly produce a very fine droplet spectrum and should be used with caution because of the risk of drift. Proper selection of flat-fan nozzle size and operating pressure can yield droplet spectrums that work well for applying insecticides and fungicides with a reduced risk of drift. Some manufacturers of backpack sprayers offer a small flooding nozzle for use on their sprayers, and these work well for low-pressure herbicide applications where drift is a concern. Even flat-fan nozzles should be used for band applications. Adjustable nozzles that produce a pattern varying between a straight stream and hollow cone allow for flexibility. These adjustable nozzles are excellent choices for a backpack sprayer that is used for a variety of spraying tasks. The straight stream pattern works well for spot applications and spraying longer distances. The hollow cone works for covering foliage on trees and shrubs; but again, caution should be used whenever a hollow-cone pattern is used, due to the risk of drift.
Regardless of the type of application you make with a backpack sprayer, one important thing to do is maintain as constant a flow rate as possible to ensure a uniform application. Changes in flow rate occur due to variations in the pressure as the sprayer is pumped. This change in pressure also affects droplet size. At higher pressures, droplet size decreases, and the risk of drift increases. To maintain a constant pressure, a pressure regulating valve (such as the CFValve) placed in the output line of the sprayer can help control pressure. This special valve allows fluid to pass only at a certain pressure. The pressure may be preset or adjustable, depending on the valve. If the tank pressure is too low, some valves close when more pressure is needed. If the tank pressure is too high, the valve reduces the output to a preset pressure. These valves generally cost around $15. Built-in adjustable pressure settings, available with certain backpack sprayer models, allow the applicator to select a specific preset pressure. A pressure gauge is another device critical to maintaining the correct pressure. Some models of backpack sprayers come with a pressure gauge built into the spray-wand handle; and for those that don't, they can be purchased and installed as an accessory.
Use and Calibration
Many times, backpack sprayers are used to treat individual plants or groups of plants. Spray-wand extensions are recommended for spraying tall plants. They allow the nozzle to be placed closer to the target, thus limiting exposure of the droplets to wind and reducing the risk of drift. Spray shields that fit on the end of the wand and surround the nozzle can help protect nontarget plants near the application site from drift, such as when spraying weeds at the base of a desired plant. When making an application, spray to obtain thorough and uniform coverage. Direct the spray to the target parts of the plant until it is thoroughly wet. For example, a foliar spray should thoroughly cover all leaves and stems. Additional spray beyond this point wastes pesticide and could damage nontarget vegetation under or downhill from the target plant. The amount of spray required depends on the size and shape of the plant, the density of the foliage, and the application techniques used by the operator. Uniform distribution of the spray depends on the applicator's technique. A systematic approach helps the applicator thoroughly cover plants with a minimum amount of runoff.
While calibrating a boom sprayer might seem to have nothing to do with calibrating a backpack sprayer, careful consideration reveals that despite some obvious differences, the basic concept is the same. The three factors that determine the gallons applied per unit area (usually gallons per acre or 1,000 square feet) that we discuss for boom sprayers in General Standards training also apply to backpack sprayers. Speed is determined by walking speed or the speed of arm motion while making the application. Although not as easy to control and monitor as vehicular speed, it still determines how much spray is applied per unit area. When you are making an application with a backpack sprayer, it is important to maintain a uniform walking speed and a consistent hand and arm motion.
Effective sprayed width is how wide an area a single nozzle covers. With boom sprayers making a broadcast application, effective sprayed width is measured as the distance between nozzles. When using a backpack sprayer with only a single nozzle at the end of a wand, effective sprayed width obliviously cannot be the distance between nozzles. It is instead the distance between the centerline of each pass with the nozzle. For example, if you make a pass across of patch of grass, and on the return pass the center of the spray pattern is 15 inches from the centerline of the previous pass, the effective sprayed width is 15 inches.
The recommended distance between each pass is based on the required overlap for the type of nozzle at the end of the wand. One of the things discussed in detail about boom sprayers during General Standards trainings is nozzle overlap. Proper overlap of individual nozzle patterns along the length of the boom is critical to assuring a uniform application. Just like on a boom sprayer, all nozzles used on a backpack sprayer except an even flat fan require a certain amount of overlap. If you are using a backpack sprayer to make broadcast applications, no matter how small the area, ignoring overlap can cause serious problems with application uniformity.
Instead of being adjusted by boom height and distance between nozzles as on a boom sprayer, overlap with a backpack sprayer is set by the distance between each spray pass, as previously discussed, and the height the nozzle is held above the target. To determine if you have the correct amount of overlap when making an application, you can spray several passes with water on a flat surface such as concrete. Then watch the rate of evaporation-all the water should evaporate at about the same time. If you have streaking, then you need to adjust the amount of overlap by changing either the nozzle height above the target or the distance between each pass.
For the most accurate broadcast application using a backpack sprayer, choose a boom designed for use with hand-held sprayers. These booms typically have two to four nozzle positions. Flat-fan nozzles should be used on the boom; and as with a powered boom sprayer, overlap is controlled by adjusting the height of the boom. Move the boom down closer to the target to reduce overlap, and move it higher to increase overlap. To help you monitor and control boom (or an individual nozzle) height during an application, a piece of string cut to the length of the required height can be dangled from the spray wand, serving as a visual indicator of height.
Nozzle flow rate is measured and adjusted the same with a backpack sprayer as with a boom sprayer. It is measured in the gallons of spray that come out of the nozzle in one minute-gallons per minute (GPM). The GPM output of a nozzle is determined by the size of the nozzle orifice and the pressure. Larger nozzle orifices and higher pressures increase flow rate, and smaller orifices and lower pressures reduce flow rate. Remember that small orifices and high pressures reduce droplet size and increase the risk of drift. Because flow rate is partially determined by pressure, maintaining a constant pressure is critical for assuring a uniform application at the correct rate. See the previous discussion for recommendations on maintaining a constant pressure.
The following is one method that can be used to calibrate a backpack sprayer for making broadcast applications. When spraying with a manual sprayer, it is important to estimate the area or amount of foliage to be sprayed, and then determine the amount of carrier needed to cover the target area. Because hand sprayers are generally used to spray limited areas, the amount of spray volume should be determined on a small area, such as 1,000 square feet. When spraying, either hold the nozzle steady at a constant height and walk back and forth, or swing the nozzle back and forth at a uniform speed in a sweeping, overlapping motion. A uniform walking speed must be maintained during all applications.
The following steps should be used to ensure calibration:
Step 1: Measure and mark off an area of 1,000 square feet (for example, 20 feet by 50 feet). Practice spraying the area with water. To obtain the most uniform coverage, always spray an area twice, spraying the second time at right angles to the first application.
Step 2: Once you are able to maintain a uniform spray, add a measured amount of water to the tank. Spray the area, and then measure the amount of water remaining in the tank. The difference between the amount in the tank before and after spraying is the amount used. For example, 2 gallons added to the tank minus 1/2 gallon remaining equals 1-1/2 gallons used per 1,000 square feet. Thus, the application rate for the above conditions is 1-1/2 gallons per 1,000 square feet.
Hopefully, this information will assist you with properly setting up and operating a backpack sprayer. Although backpack sprayers might seem to be considerably different from the boom sprayers discussed during General Standards training, the two types are similar in many aspects. Proper selection and operation of nozzles, maintaining a constant pressure for a consistent flow rate and droplet spectrum, and proper calibration are important no matter what type of sprayer you use.
Clean Up Your Act!-Deactivating Pesticide Residues
To err when mixing and applying pesticides is human. Perhaps the rate applied was excessive, the wrong pesticide was applied, or the application was made to the wrong site. Maybe you've had a little pesticide spill onto the ground and absorb into the soil, which is harmful in itself; but even more damaging are large or major spills that further spread to contaminate groundwater or surface water. Of course, the thorough cleanup of major spills requires the assistance of experts in this field. So be sure to notify the proper authorities immediately should a major spill occur. One final scenario that could involve pesticide residues maybe occurs less frequently but is still a possibility; perchance you are dealing with the ramifications of the free or discount soil you acquired that strangely enough won't support plant growth. Clearly contaminated soils provide many problems for the environment, pesticide users, and growers. What can be done to mend these errors?
They say that time heals all wounds, right? Well pesticides need time to degrade, sometimes lots of time, which requires patience on your part. They also need oxygen, water, warm temperatures, and hungry microbes in the soil to munch on them. To help pass the time and possibly speed up the process, organic matter such as manure or straw may be disked and watered into the soil, and a cheap ground cover such as oats or wheat may be planted. Depending on the pesticide in the soil, this also may serve as a test crop or bioassay; when the pesticide has finally been rendered ineffective, the test crop should grow without injury, which may take a few plantings or seasons to achieve.
When time is of the essence, soil may be removed from the site and replaced. However, this may be impractical for large sites as it can be quite expensive. Large equipment, a proper disposal site, and replacement soil are needed to complete the task.
It may be possible to deactivate or "tie up" the pesticide residues with activated carbon, also known as activated charcoal. Most applicators and Extension folks such as I are more familiar with the latter term; however, the manufacturers definitely prefer the term "activated carbon." It's probably wise in order to eliminate any possible confusion with the other charcoal that makes hamburgers taste so good.
Activated carbon has tiny pores between the carbon atoms that creates a huge surface area for certain carbon-based chemicals to adsorb (bind) to.(1) Some chemicals (inorganic pesticides such as arsenates, lead compounds, sodium chlorate, sulfur, borax, and water-soluble organic pesticides such as aminotriazole, MSMA, and DSMA)(2) pass on through the tiny pores. Others are adsorbed readily or trapped until all bonding sites are filled, at which time the activated carbon must be replaced. Carbon filters in water purification systems work by the same principles to trap carbon-based impurities. Once pesticide residues in the soil are tied up by activated carbon, they are no longer biologically active, and thus plant growth may resume.
Activated carbon adsorbs 100 to 200 times its own weight.(2) The rate of activated carbon to be used to deactivate a pesticide-contaminated area depends largely on the characteristics of the pesticide present. Typically, you would need 100 to 400 pounds per acre (2.3 to 9.2 pounds per thousand square feet) for each pound of active ingredient of a pesticide applied per acre. As a basic guideline, 200 pounds per acre (4.6 pounds per thousand square feet) are typically applied for each pound of pesticide active ingredient per acre.(3) For assistance in determining how much active ingredient was applied based on how much pesticide product you applied, consult with your local University of Illinois Extension office or refer to Illinois Applicator Training Manual SP39-General Standards.
In some situations, it may be impossible to determine the amount of pesticide residues in the soil. You may have to rely on your best guess. Is it a site where mixing has occurred for several years and vegetation grows, but with injury? If no vegetation grows, then you can assume the level of contamination is higher. Again, it is better to err on the side of caution and apply a higher rate of activated carbon. The primary downside of applying too much is that it affects your pocketbook. You can always apply more if vegetation still does not grow uninjured.
Activated carbon can be applied in the dry form using a drop spreader. However, it can be difficult to achieve an even application because the tiny, dustlike particles are easily moved by wind. A slurry (formed by suspending the activated carbon in water) can be applied with a watering can or power sprayer. If needed, nonionic surfactant can be added at 1 quart per 50 gallons to increase the suspension of the activated carbon in water.(3) It is important to note that activated carbon is quite abrasive and can damage spray equipment, particularly roller-type pumps. Spray equipment typically used for applying concentrated wettable powders would be appropriate for applying such as slurry. In particular, sprayers with centrifugal pumps and nozzles made of a wear-resistant material like hardened stainless steal or ceramic work well. Moderate agitation during the application is required. Be sure to clean equipment carefully after use. Interestingly enough, activated carbon can also be used to clean or neutralize your sprayer. To avoid damage, be sure to read and follow all label directions.
Depending on where the pesticide residues are, activated carbon may need to be incorporated into the soil via tillage. Ideally, it should be only as deep as the pesticide residues are, so typically incorporation into the top few inches of the soil is sufficient. However, if the pesticide was not incorporated by tillage or water, activated carbon may be left on the surface and watered thoroughly once. Again, the product label or information sheets provided by the manufacturer offer guidance on the proper application methods to use.
It's not a bad idea to have some activated carbon on hand for emergencies. It is sold under several trade names and can be obtained through most agrichemical dealers in either 5-pound bags or larger bulk quantities. NORIT Americas, the world's largest manufacturer of activated carbon, offers over 150 different grades in powdered, granular, and extruded forms. However, a powdered formulation, Gro-Safe, is perhaps their most commonly used formulation in agriculture. Their largest distributor in Illinois is Univar at (708)757-7450. Orders can also be taken by NORIT Americas at (800)641-9245, ext. 4767 (customer service). More information can be found at http://www.norit-americas.com/. Another manufacturer of activated carbon is Parkway Research, which offers a flowable charcoal deactivator called 52 Pick-Up. For more information, check out http://www.parkwayresearch.com/.
- McCarty, L.B., "Activated Charcoal for Pesticide Deactivation," University of Florida Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet.
- Miller, L.C., and L.B. McCarty, "Activated Charcoal for Pesticide Deactivation," taken from http://www.sodsolutions.com/turfmgt/charcoal.html
(Michelle Wiesbrook and Scott Bretthauer)
Bilingual English/Spanish Pesticide Safety Education Program
There will be a bilingual English/Spanish General Standards Training Clinic on March 9 and 10, 2006, in northeastern Illinois. Topics will be taught in English with immediate translation to Spanish. The registration cost of $50 per person covers both days of training and the choice of either the English or Spanish General Standards Study Guide and Workbook. Testing will not be offered; for testing information, call the Illinois Department of Agriculture at (847)294-4343 or your local Extension Office.
The program will be held at University of Illinois Extension, 1010 Jorie Blvd., Suite 200, Oak Brook, IL 60521. For more information or to register, contact the University of Illinois Extension DuPage County Office at (630)653-4114. The registration deadline is March 2, 2006.
Following is the schedule for the clinic. Realize that attendance is needed for both days to receive all of the training topics.
March 9, 2006
8:15 a.m. Registration-coffee and light refreshments
8:45 a.m. Labels and Labeling
9:15 a.m. Application Equipment
10:15 a.m. Break
10:30 a.m. Calibration
11:30 a.m. Pesticide Laws and Regulations
Noon Evaluation and adjourn
March 10, 2006
8:15 a.m. Registration-coffee and light refreshments
8:45 a.m. Integrated Pest Management
9:30 a.m. Understanding Pesticides
10:30 a.m. Break
10:45 a.m. Human Pesticide Protection
11:30 a.m. Pesticides in the Environment
Noon Evaluation and adjourn
(Phil Nixon and Susan Grupp)
Aquatics (SP39-6) Pesticide Applicator Training Manual Revised
This fully revised category manual is finally back from print and available for purchase. It replaces the 1996 manual, so your reference library may need to be updated. It serves as a study manual for persons wishing to become certified as a Commercial, Commercial Not-For-Hire, or Public Aquatics Applicator. It focuses primarily on aquatic vegetation management, but fish-control methods and fish-kill diagnosis are also discussed. The 68-page revised manual contains eight in-depth chapters that address (1) aquatic plants; (2) major aquatic plant groups-their habitats and identification; (3) conditions for aquatic plant growth; (4) nonchemical aquatic plant management; (5) chemical aquatic plant management; (6) chemical application methods, equipment, and techniques; (7) fish population management; and (8) diagnosis and prevention of fish-related problems. Much information was added to the text of this revision; and in many chapters, the revisions are quite substantial. This publication, printed in November 2005, has an accompanying workbook that has been revised as well. Both publications can be purchased from your local University of Illinois Extension office or ordered by calling (800)345-6087. Orders may be placed online at www.PublicationsPlus.uiuc.edu. For information about 2006 Aquatics pesticide applicator training clinics, contact the Pesticide Safety Education Program office at (800)644-2123.