The Ag Engineering Update The latest and greatest from your livestock engineers. Sun, 15 May 2005 13:02:08 -0500 Ag Fan Testing: U of I BESS Labs Thu, 10 May 2018 10:10:00 +0000
BESS Lab website is here:
Handout for AnSci 403 on how to pick a fan from the database.

Incandescent, CFL and LED bulbs. The choice is getting easy. Wed, 09 May 2018 15:33:00 +0000
Long story short...LED are best choice now economically, if their color rendering index meets your needs. Below is my answer key:

Bulb Type/Watts per bulb

Life Span (hr)

Bulbs/packs required


Purchase cost

Operating cost

Total Cost

Incandescent /75W


11,000/750 = 15

8 bulbs/room x 15 iterations = 120 bulbs

$3.44/4-pack or $3.44 x 30 = $103.20

$0.88 x 8 bulbs x 75W/bulb = $528





11,000/6000 =2

12 bulbs/room x 2 iterations = 24 bulbs

$8.89/pack x 2 packs

= $17.78

$0.88 x 24 bulbs x 13 W/bulb = 137.28


LED 1/



11,000/11,000 = 1

9 bulbs/room

$2.57/bulb x 9 bulbs

= $23.13

$0.88 x9 bulbs x 12 W/bulb = $95.04


LED 2/



11,000/11,000 = 1

12 bulbs/room

$5.31/pack x 3 packs

= $15.93

$0.88 x 12 bulbs x 9 W/bulb = $95.04


LED 3/



11,000/11,000 = 1

12 bulbs/room

Same as previous: $15.93

$0.88 x 12 bulbs x 8.5W/bulb =$89.76


Note this was for non-dimmable bulbs.
Actual problem statement here:

Develop a cost comparison for the following lighting situation. A utility room (12' x 15') needs a minimum of 50 lumens/ft2. Menards has the following options for purchase:
  • 4-pack of 75W incandescent bulbs (A19 style) for $3.44, rated at 750hr, 1200 lumens, soft white, 2850K);
  • 12-pack of "60W equivalent" CFL bulbs (E26 base) for $8.89, 13 W/bulb, rated at 6000hr, 800 lumen, soft white, 2700 Kelvin;
  • Sylvania 75W Equivalent General Purpose (Daylight, Soft White, or Bright White all available at same price and specifications) A19 LED light bulb for $2.57 each, 12W, 1100 lumens, 80CRI, rated at 11,000hr, 5000K;
  • Feit Electric 60W Equivalent General Purpose Soft White A19 LED Light Bulb, 9 W/bulb, 4-pack for $5.31, 800 lumen, rated at 11,000hr, 80CRI, 2700K; or
  • for same price a "daylight" bulb rated at 8.5W/bulb, 5000k and all other specifications and price same as the Feit Soft White bulbs.

Figure out how many of each type of bulb you need at a minimum and you cannot "split" packs, i.e. you have to buy in the pack quantity, so if you need 9 bulbs but it's a 4-pack you must buy 3 packs. Don't consider the fixture costs, which may vary a bit depending on number of bulbs used, only the bulb costs. Ignore sales tax too.

Run the cost analysis including purchase cost and electric cost, assuming $0.08 per kW-hr. For each of these 4 cases, explain the pros and cons, and identify which you prefer for a utility room and why.

Nutrient budget worksheets are now available online Tue, 06 Mar 2018 16:14:00 +0000 N-limiting worksheet ]]> Farms may be required to report as early as Jan 22, 2018 under CERCLA Thu, 18 Jan 2018 12:57:00 +0000 Update!

On January 19, 2018, Friday, EPA filed a motion with the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals to further delay issuance of the mandate. Please check EPA's website to reach recent information on the court mandate.


The U.S. EPA has recently published a fact sheet that provides an overview of the CERCLA reporting requirements for air releases from animal farms. According to the fact sheet, farms with animal operations that release more than 100 pounds of ammonia or hydrogen sulfide in a 24-hour period may be required to report these air emissions as early as January 22, 2018.

The Court is expected to issue its order on January 22, 2018 and farms do not have to report until the Court issues its mandate, but we urge farms to review the sources below and familiarize themselves with the CERCLA continuous release reporting process. We will update this webpage as more information becomes available.

EPA's CERCLA fact sheet (English & Spanish)

EPA's website

Continuous release reporting form

University of Illinois Extension's threshold table and swinedairybeefpoultry emission calculators

2018 Illinois Pork Expo slated for February 6-8 2018 Tue, 09 Jan 2018 16:37:00 +0000 Mark your calendars:
The 2018 Illinois Pork Expo is February 6-7, 2018 in Springfield, IL.


  • - Largest swine specific tradeshow in Illinois with over 165 exhibitor booths
  • - Educational seminars
  • - Talk to industry experts
  • - Certified Livestock Manager Training
  • - Legislative Reception on the Tradeshow floor!


For more information and to register please visit the attached link. Pre-register by January 26 for discounted rates.


any questions? Contact Illinois Pork Producers 217 529 3100

CERCLA Air Emissions Reporting Delayed until Jan 22, 2018 at the earliest Fri, 01 Dec 2017 13:53:00 +0000 UPDATE- According to the new Q&A posted on the EPA's website, those farmers who have already made their initial continuous release notification do NOT need to submit their written report to the EPA regional office within 30 days. They may wait to submit the written report until the court issues the mandate. No additional call or e-mail to the National Response Center is required.

Another update is about cattle grazing on pastures. According to EPA's new Q&A, farms that have cattle that reside primarily outside of an enclosed structure and graze on pastures need to comply with reporting releases of hazardous substances from animal wastes under CERCLA.

To access EPA's website for this updated information, please click here. As stated below, no reporting is required until January 22, 2018 at the earliest.

We will update this webpage as more information becomes available.


On November 22, 2017, Wednesday, the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals granted EPA's motion to further stay the mandate until January 22, 2018. Farmers do not have to submit their initial continuous release notification until at least January 22, 2018 when the D.C. Circuit Court is expected to issue its mandate. Once the mandate is issued, farms emitting more than 100 pounds of ammonia or hydrogen sulfide in a 24-hour period must submit an initial continuous release notification to the National Response Center (NRC).

You may want to review the following links to familiarize yourself with CERCLA reporting.

University of Illinois Extension threshold table and swinedairybeefpoultry emission calculators

IL Pork Producers CERCLA reporting guidance document

US Poultry CERCLA reporting guidebroiler reporting form

EPA written reporting forms





CERCLA Reporting Update Nov 13, 2017 Mon, 13 Nov 2017 15:12:00 +0000 Update: As of Nov 15, 2017 3 pm, farms with continuous releases DO NOT HAVE to submit their initial continuous release notification until the court issues its order, or mandate, enforcing the April 11, 2017, decision.

You can review the material below to familiarize yourself with the continuous release reporting, but NO REPORTING IS REQUIRED until EPA updates its guidance to provide farmers with notice of when the mandate issues and reporting requirements begin. Please check EPA's website for updates.


As we have noted recently, an appeals court ruling requires livestock and poultry farmers across the nation to report ammonia and/or hydrogen sulfide emissions in amounts equal or greater than 100 lbs in any 24h period over the course of a year. Further information is available on EPA's website.

How do you know if your operation is exceeding 100 lbs per day threshold? We have developed a simple table that may be of assistance. This was developed using numbers for per animal emissions published by EPA in 2009, and may or may not be representative of your situation. Also, here are calculators you may utilize to estimate daily emissions by livestock species (also using EPA emissions factors):

Swine calculator

Dairy calculator

Beef calculator

Poultry calculator

If you determine that you must report a continuous release, here are the steps to follow (taken from EPA's website on 11-13-2017):

1. Notify the NRC by e-mail ( and identify your reportable release as an"initial continuous release notification." You will need to include: farm name, location (county/state or city/state, not address), and whether it is NH3 or H2S that you report -- in the majority of cases, it will be NH3 (ammonia). (this email is new as of today)

2. Within 30 days of your initial notification, submit an initial written notification to the EPA Region 5 Office and,

3. One year later submit an additional follow-up written notification to the EPA Region 5 Office.

Please note that we will publish EPA Region 5 Office contact information for points 2 and 3 when available.

The deadline is currently November 15, 2017. However, EPA continues to modify their website so you are encouraged to keep checking it prior to taking action.


This document and the calculators are intended to assist producers with reporting the possible emission of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. The guidance provided in this document is consistent with the information published by the U.S. EPA. U of I Extension does not endorse this method of emission estimation. This document should not be considered legal advice and is not a substitute for legal advice.