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Pesticide Safety Education Program

1995/1996 Annual Report


Illinois law, in accordance with the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act, requires that anyone who purchases or uses pesticides classified as "restricted use" must be certified as a commercial pesticide applicator or operator, or a private (farmer) pesticide applicator. In addition, those who apply "general use" pesticides commercially must also be certified. The responsibilities of the Illinois Department of Agriculture (IDA) and Cooperative Extension Service (CES) in pesticide certification and training are clearly defined. The IDA, as lead agency, has responsibility for the certification and issuing of permits or licenses to per^ sons who apply pesticides. The CES, working in cooperation with IDA staff, is responsible for conducting educational training programs for private, commercial, and public pesticide applicators and operators.

Since 1966, the CES has been conducting training schools for private applicators, and commercial agricultural and urban operators and applicators. The purpose is to train applicators and operators in the proper and safe use of pesticides to prevent misuse and to avoid accidents. In addition to keeping applicators up-to-date on new developments in both chemical and nonchemical pest control methods, the training sessions help to prepare applicants to pass examinations required for obtaining a license or certification. This quality pesticide safety education is ultimately vital to Illinois residents in terms of public health protection and environmental stewardship.

Initial funding for Pesticide Applicator Training (PAT) was provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) through the USDA Federal Extension Service. USEPA funding in 1974 was about $150,000 per year. These funds were used to develop pesticide applicator study guides, provide training to County Extension Advisors, and employ staff to administer the PAT program in Illinois. The budget allocation from USEPA for PAT in FY 1995-1996 is $69,689 which is inadequate to conduct a quality PAT program.

The Pesticide Control Fund, approved by the Illinois State Legislature in August 1985, provides funds to the IDA "for the purpose of conducting a public educational program on the proper use of pesticides and for other activities related to the enforcement of this act." During FY 1995-1996 the IDA provided the University of Illinois $255,090.00 to conduct educational programs related to the safe and proper use of pesticides.

Program Goals and Mission

The goal of our program is to reach all users of pesticides in Illinois with educational information on the effective, economic, and environmentally sound use of pesticides.

Our mission is twofold: 1. To provide training through PAT for private and commercial applicators in Illinois. 2. To provide pesticide education to a diverse audience in "other related" program areas such as worker protection, pesticide record-keeping water quality endangered species, IPM, food safety, etc.

Pesticides are important tools in production agriculture, enabling producers to manage pests such as insects, weeds, and diseases. Pesticides also play an important role in public health in control of nuisance pests and disease vectors such as mosquitoes. Homeowners routinely use pesticides for pest control in and around the home. CES Pesticide Safety Educators provide educational and training programs to address Health, the Environment, Pest Management, and Pesticide Safety. Here are some of the ways we do it!


• Understanding health effects from the misuse of pesticides
• Food Safety Water Quality issues
• Worker Protection for Agricultural Pesticides
• Personal safety of applicators Vector control programs Application-education and training in better techniques Home use of pesticides


• Water Quality
• Prevention of adverse effects to the ecology
• Endangered Species
• Sustainable Agriculture
• Calibration and application
• Disposal of pesticides
• Drift reduction

Pest Management

• Pest Identification
• Nonchemical Controls
• Pesticide Selection
• Pesticide Timing

Pesticide Safety

• Understanding pesticide labels
• Selection of pesticides
• Understanding health effects of pesticide
• Proper application of pesticides
• Personal protection
• Proper storage

Educational Materials

Training materials are continually being developed for use at the clinics. A new Plant Management Manual was produced and printed. The Turfgrass Manual was completely revised and printed. The Aquatics Manual was revised. The General Standards and Turf and Ornamentals Workbooks were revised last year. Reprintings of several publications were made in the last year, some with minor revisions.

The Illinois Pesticide Review Newsletter continued with four issues during the past year. This newsletter's primary purpose is to provide information on legislation, regulations, and other developments directly impacting pesticide use in Illinois. Mass media has also been used in the past year through newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, and television to publicize PAT programs as well as proper pesticide use and safety.

Pesticide Container Recycling

For the past few years, the Illinois Department of Agriculture has sponsored a pesticide container recycling effort in Illinois. Proper preparation of the pesticide container prior to recycling is essential. Extra emphasis was given to this issue during commercial and private PAT programs this year. Proper container preparation and options available for disposal were discussed.

In addition, plans are under way to prepare additional educational materials on this subject, including table-top display units and accompanying brochures. These materials can be used at training programs, shows, workshops, fairs, etc. to demonstrate the importance of pesticide container recycling and how it is accomplished.

Commercial PAT Programs

Pesticide Training and Certification Clinics for commercial applicators and operators were conducted at thirty-one sites during the months of December through May. At these meetings, 6627 commercial applicators and operators were trained (Table 1).

Topics of these clinics included General Standards Training, and Category Training in the areas of Field Crops, Turf, Ornamentals, Rights-of- Way, Aquatics, Demonstration and Research, Mosquito, Seed Treatment, and Grain Facility. Continuing education credits were made available to Certified Crop Advisers and Illinois Certified Arborists that earned them as a result of PAT training.

The clinic schedule brochure was reworked based on suggestions made by the University of Illinois Agricultural Publications staff with input from IDA personnel. Based on questions and concerns about the schedule of clinics, these seemed to be fewer than in previous years, but the numbers being retested and thus trained was also lower this year. It appeared that a higher percentage of clientele came to the clinics matching their categories than in previous years.

Efforts were made during the past year to standardize the commercial PAT training in the state. The time allotted for General Standards training downstate was reduced by 50 minutes and the turfgrass training was reduced by one hour. Training in northeastern Illinois for ornamentals and turfgrass increased in total by two hours with ornamentals training being presented in the afternoon of the first day of two-day clinics. Field crops training was reduced by two hours to accommodate new scheduling.

Champaign-Urbana extension personnel did much of the training in northeastern Illinois and more off-campus extension personnel helped with the training downstate. This had the net effect of getting more people involved with the training and simultaneously making the training more uniform. Extension specialists in Champaign worked with trainers in other parts of the state to create useful educational programs and assisted the training efforts by not only teaching but also providing slides, scripts, and other training materials. The computer-aided presentations for General Standards was improved with the addition of more pictures and increasing its interactive makeup to make the presentation more interesting to the audience. The use of this setup was expanded into its use in some of the category training.

All preregistration for the commercial PAT clinics was handled in Champaign with additional personnel available to help answer questions and concerns. This setup allowed the use of a toll-free number and credit cards which was mentioned as a plus by many trainees. Although there were some problems encountered, with a year's experience, we are working to have preregistration go smoother next year.

Surveys were distributed at the northeastern PAT clinics to obtain feedback on the restructured clinics, the quality of training, and the effectiveness of the preregistration process. Although complete data analysis has not been done, preliminary results show that participants like the changes to the NE-Illinois clinics. Comments from the Crystal Lake clinic included "the session was better than 3 years ago" and "excellent use of visual aids."


Table 1. Numbers Trained during 1995-1996 Commercial PAT Clinics
Date City











Nov 20-21 Peoria





Nov 29-30 Marion





Dec 11-12 Champaign




Dec 19-20 Mt. Vernon





Jan 4 Urbana



Jan 10-11 Mt. Vernon





Jan 17-18 Rochelle






Jan 22-23 Springfield






Jan 29-30 Champaign





Jan 31-1 Mt. Vernon



Feb 6-7 Rockford






Feb13-14 Springfield






Feb 14-15 Mundelein




Feb 20-21 E. Peoria





Feb 21-22 Matteson






Feb 26-27 Collinsville






Feb 27 Crystal Lake


Mar 4-5 Jacksonville



Mar 5-6 Willowbrook






Mar 11-12 Moline





Mar 12-13 Arlington Hts





Mar 19 Mt. Vernon


Mar 19-20 Glen Ellyn




Apr 2-3 Matteson




Apr 9 Peoria


Apr 9-10 Mundelein




Apr 16-17 Westmont



61 (English)

Apr 16-17 Westmont



Apr 23-24 Chicago




May 14 Springfield

May 22 Glen Ellyn












Total Trained = 6,627

Private PAT Programs

Private Applicator Training Clinics were conducted in many of the counties of Illinois by Extension Educators and Unit Leaders with support provided by campus-based staff. As a result of these clinics, 2,324 farmers and other private applicators were certified.

The slide set that these private applicator trainers use was revised with many new slides produced. Updates were necessary to reflect Worker Protection Standard requirements and to ensure the material is technologically and legally current. The accompanying slide script was revised and reprinted. An inservice education session was held in Urbana on Nov. 8. At this session, training guidelines were suggested by the PAT Specialists and concerns and suggestions were discussed with the Private PAT Trainers. Included in this session was information on the proper card distribution associated with Worker Protection Standards training.

Funds provided by this grant last year allowed us to reimburse part of the cost of larger facilities for Private PAT. These funds were only provided where part of the cost was being borne by local funds such as registration fees, donations from grower organizations, or county extension program monies. As a result of this program, $2,301.00 was provided to help fund 18 private PAT meetings held throughout the state. The amount provided was less than in the two preceding years due to fewer retests being required this year.

Worker Protection Standard

Implementation of the revised Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is proceeding well after its first full year of implementation. The University of Illinois Cooperative Extension Service (CES) has been instrumental in helping producers understand and implement these new rules.

Part of continuing efforts include educating CES personnel about the rule and its changes. In June 1995 a teleconference was held with Don Baumgartner from the US-EPA Region V office to explain WPS changes and answer questions. Open communications with Rhonda Ferree also keep CES personnel up-to-date through electronic, written, and oral messages.

Rhonda Ferree and Bob Wolf are active in the Worker Protection Stakeholders group, a collaboration of affected industry representatives, educational institutions, regulatory agencies, and advocates. The group's purpose is to assure that the WPS in Illinois is implemented in a way that is meaningful to agricultural workers and manageable from the perspective of the agricultural employer.

During the summer, a group from EPA headquarters came to Illinois to meet with producers in an effort to better understand how the WPS works in Illinois. Rhonda Ferree worked with the Illinois Farm Bureau and Region V- EPA office to organize the tours and meetings with vegetable, seed, and row-crop producers.

WPS overview training was provided to help producers better understand the rule and its 1995 changes. Efforts at U of I College of ACES and industry field days, industry and association meetings, and U of I CES workshops and schools throughout Illinois resulted in 415 agricultural employers being trained. Educational efforts through mass media included four news releases and several newspaper, radio, and television interviews. Articles and appendices were also written for the Home, Yard, and Garden Newsletter and Illinois Urban and Agricultural Pest Management Handbooks.

Since PAT programs meet the WPS training requirements, many agricultural employers send agricultural workers and handlers to PAT clinics. To meet this need, private PAT training materials were updated to include necessary WPS material. Each CES trainer was given worker and handler WPS training verification cards to distribute to clientele. Most employees attending these sessions either must or choose to take the exam and obtain a pesticide license. Therefore, only 20 cards were distributed to those attending PAT programs to solely meet WPS requirements. To meet the training needs of those unable to attend PAT clinics, CES provides actual worker/handler training and teaching videos or flip charts on a loan basis.

Homeowner Programs

Illinois homeowners and other residents are educated on proper pesticide use through the Master Gardener Program. Training is provided to Master Gardeners through the pesticide safety section of the Master Gardener Manual and color slides that were prepared by the PAT Specialists. These PAT Specialists are also active in teaching pesticide safety to the master gardeners who in turn provide that information to the general public in Illinois. Proper use of pesticides is a goal of the College of Agriculture at the University of Illinois and many other opportunities are utilized during the year.

Homeowner and other resident education concerning pesticide safety was given a major boost by the publishing of "57 Ways to Protect Your Home Environment (and Yourself)." This 310 page handbook was produced with major input by the PAT Specialists. Thirty-three articles and sidebars were produced or reviewed by PAT teachers on pesticide safety and related topics. This publication represents a major effort towards the education of the general public on proper pesticide use and pest control. In addition to its use in Illinois, it is a North Central Regional Extension Publication meaning that it is available in many of the midwestern states.

Crop Protection Workshop

More intensive training concerning protective equipment was provided at the Crop Protection Workshop. In this one-and-one-half hour workshop, indepth training was provided concerning the proper selection and use of personal protective equipment. In addition to receiving verbal information, each participant tried on respirators, Tyvek coveralls, boots, and gloves and practiced removing them properly to prevent contamination. Individuals wearing respirators were exposed to gaseous irritants to check for proper fit.

Drift Education Activities

A special coalition for the reduction of drift has been formed by the USDA-ES. The coalition has been asked by the Spray Drift Task Force (SDTF) to work with the drift data accumulated from the Drift Task Force Research Group to develop a multipartnered training approach to improve drift management and increase the application efficiency of crop protection materials. Members of the coalition represent the USEPA, state lead agencies, USDA, applicators, product manufactures and distributors, private applicator interests, AAPSE, AAPCO, NAAA, ARA, and university agricultural engineers. Bob Wolf has been chosen to serve on the coalition and will chair the education committee for the group. Currently meetings are being held on a 3-month cycle in Washington DC.

Operation Safe Fly-in Workshops

The University of Illinois Agricultural Engineering Department in cooperation with the Illinois Agricultural Aviation Association (IAAA) and FMC hosted three Operation Safe Fly-in workshops in Illinois and one in Wisconsin in the past program year. Both liquid and dry application systems were tested during the workshops. A new 'string analysis' computer assisted system has greatly improved the liquid pattern analysis process for the pilots. Pilots are able to fly across the 'string' and upon analysis make adjustments on sight and retest with another series of passes. Pilots leave the workshop with confidence that they are conforming to regulations, applying product with adequate dropsize, pattern uniformity, proper swath width, and volume.

Additional equipment using the same analysis techniques has been acquired to measure drift during aerial application. The drift analysis program was used for the first time in 1995 at the Illinois sponsored clinics. The information gathered will be used in future fly-in workshops to educate the pilots about minimizing spray drift.

Other Programs

Spanish PAT

The Northern Illinois Horticulture Association, which previously handled northeastern Illinois PAT preregistration, assisted the program by hosting a Spanish General Standards clinic in which qualified, bilingual people were found to present the training in Spanish. Seventy people participated in the two-day program. It is hoped that learning the material in Spanish while using English visuals will increase the pass rate on the English test and make the pesticide labels which are written in English, more understandable by this clientele.


Information regarding the safe use of chemicals in agriculture have been provided by members of the PAT team at meetings of the Illinois Network for Agricultural Safety and Health (INASH). Presentation topics to these audiences who are not familiar with the use of chemicals in agriculture included toxicity information, personal protective equipment (PPE) requirements, and proper agricultural chemical handling techniques. The Ag. Engineering PAT Specialist is the current chairman-elect of INASH.


The PAT specialists taught a one-day session of an INTERPAKS course on Integrated Pest Management sponsored by the University of Illinois International Program for Agricultural Knowledge Systems. Individuals from Africa and the Far East learned about pesticide safety, the PAT program, and observed several means of program delivery during the day. The PAT specialists also provide formal training in pesticide safety through numerous guest lectures in several campus courses.

Major Invited Talks Given by PAT Specialists

Ag Machinery Conference, 'Spray Technology'; Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Association of Golf Course Superintendents Midwestern Workshop, 'Subsurface Application of Insecticides and the Use of Nematodes to Control White Grubs'; Normal, IL
Horticulture Plant Maintenance Seminar 'Landscape Insect Problems to Watch for in 1995'; Elk Grove Village, IL
Illinois Arborist Assoc. Annual Seminar, 'Insect Update for Illinois'; Decator, IL
Illinois Mosquito & Vector control Assoc. Annual Meeting, 'Spiders of Public Health Importance'; Champaign, IL
Illinois Specialty Growers Conference, 'Air-Assisted Spraying'; Decatur, IL
Kids Farm Safety Program; Peoria, IL
McDonough Public Health Department 5th Annual Vector Seminar, 'Some Beetles & Weevils of Public Health Importance'; Macomb, IL
North Central Turfgrass Exposition, 'Insect Control'; St. Charles, IL
Nozzle and Drift Demonstrations (6), Chemical Co. and Coop's in Illinois
Ohio Top Farmers, 'Technology to Reduce Drift'; Dayton, Ohio
Peoria County Public School Environmental Workshops, 'Insect ID and Environmental Importance', Chillicothe, IL
Pioneer Hi-Bred, 'CCA Training', O'Fallon, IL
Pond Management; Champaign, IL
Weed Identification/Management and Herbicide Injury Symptoms, 4 in Illinois

Workshops, Shows, and Meeting Participation by PAT Specialists

AAPCO/AAPSE in Washington, DC
Agrigrowth Applicator Training Seminar
Certification & Training Meeting in San Diego, CA
Crop Protection Workshop
Central Illinois Golf Course Superintendents
College of ACES Open House
Hardi Sprayer Company Factory Training Seminar in Copenhagen, Denmark
Illinois Landscape Horticulture Field Research Laboratory Field Day
Illinois Natural History Survey Water Symposium
Illinois Agronomy Day
MAGIE, Flyin and Dry Application Workshop for Ground Applicators
Mid-Am Horticultural Trade Show
Operation Safe Aerial Fly-in Workshops in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota
Professional Applicator Seminar Series (PASS)
Perennial Symposium at the Chicago Botanic Gardens
PLCAA National Meeting
Sprays and Sprayers Show and Demonstration in Cambridge, England
Terra Applicator Training School

Research by PAT Specialists

Spraying Systems and Penn State Turf Department, Drift Measurement
Spraying Systems and Cantigny Golf Course, Drift Measurement
Spraying Systems and U of I Golf Course, Drift Measurement
Effect of Nozzle, Pressure and Volume on Postemergence Weed Control
"State of the Art Injection Sprayer" design, Agronomy and Ag Engineering Farms
IR-4 Herbicide Research
Herbicide and Herbicide Injury Demonstration Plots
Insecticide Efficacy Research on Turfgrass, Trees, and Greenhouse Plants
Perceptions Related to Agricultural Chemical Usage

Pesticide Safety Education Specialists

Advisory Team

Summary of PAT Improvements

  • Integrated NE Illinois clinics into downstate program for more program unity.
  • Used survey tool at NE clinics to evaluate above change.
  • Completely redid schedule brochure to meet audience needs and make it more readable.
  • Dennis Thompson, the PAT specialist in Crop Sciences, has recently completed his dissertation entitled "Identifying Perceptions Associated with Agricultural Chemical Use: Implications for Pesticide Applicator Training in Illinois." This major research effort will provide a critical review of the PAT training program and provide an excellent opportunity to determine areas where additional effort is needed.
  • Providing continuing education credits for CCAs and Illinois State Arborists through PAT clinics.
  • Improved computer presentation with addition of more images, readable pop-up boxes in Labels and Labeling and the addition of Pesticide in the Environment section to the computer. Upgraded presentation equipment to Powerpoint 7.0 in Windows 95 with a remote advancing unit. Revised 'SprayTool' with improved nozzle images. Working on a design change for both the Powerpoint and Spraytool training programs to include video clips (nozzles spraying, weeds dying, etc.).

Benefits of Our Program

The benefits of our pesticide safety educational programs far exceed the costs. We improve the quality of pesticide applicators in Illinois by increasing their level of pesticide knowledge and safe use. In previous evaluations of private and commercial applicators, participants reported significant change in the way they handled pesticides. After training, applicators were more likely to refer to pesticide labels, use safety equipment, and calibrate application equipment.

Nationally these programs have shown to maintain pesticides that would otherwise be lost to producers. Our educational programs help regulatory programs with voluntary compliance through better understanding.

Our PAT programs have a value-added approach. Participants come to our training not only because they need information to pass the licensing examination, but also to obtain additional information that is important in terms of public health protection, environmental stewardship, and plant protection.

Appendix A:

Professional Improvement by PAT Specialists

Professional Society Involvement

Agricultural Retailers Association (ARA)
American Association of Pesticide Safety Educators (AAPSE)
American Society for Horticultural Science
American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE):
American Society of Agronomists
Central Illinois Golf Course Superintendents Association (CIGCSA)
Entomological Society of America
Illinois Agricultural Aviators Association (IAAA)
Illinois Extension Advisors Association
Illinois Fertilizer and Chemical Association (IFCA)
Illinois Network for Agricultural Safety and Health (INASH)
Illinois Landscape Contractors Association
Illinois Nurserymen Association
Michigan Entomological Society
National Association of County Agricultural Agents
North Central Weed Science Society
Professional Lawn Care Association of America (PLCAA)
Region 5 EPA State and Federal Regulatory (SFIREG) Committee Members
Weed Science Society of America

University Committee Involvement
Agricultural Engineering Department Committees
Crop Sciences Committees
College of ACES Committees
Grounds Advisory Committee
Illinois Natural History Survey Committees
Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences Committees
Purdue Pest Control Conference Committee

Other Committees
Coalition for Drift Minimization-USEPA
Environmental Education Leadership Group
Horticulture Development Team
IPM Development Team
Plant Health Care/Integrated Pest Management Workshop Committee
Professional Applicator Institute (PAI)
Urban-IPM Development Team
Worker Protection Standard Stakeholders Group

Appendix B:

Support Trainers

Commercial PAT Trainers
Integrated Pest Management Educators and Specialists
Fredric Miller, Tom Royer, John Lloyd, Joe Toman

Horticulture Educators and Specialists
Martha Smith, Bruce Spangenberg, Bob Argent, Susan Grupp, Greg Stack, David Robson, James Schuster, Sharon Yiesla, Tom Voigt

Plant Pathology Specialists
Walker Kirby, Nancy Pataky

Equipment Specialists and Farm System Educators
Lester Pordesimo, Chip Petrie

Private PAT Trainers
Crop Systems Educators
James Morrison, Ellen Mary Phillips, Dale Baird, William Brink, Dennis Bowman, James Daugherty, Michael Roegge, Larry Casey, Robert Bellm, Robert Frank, Dennis Epplin

Integrated Pest Management Educators
David Feltes, Joe Toman, Fred Miller, George Czapar, Suzanne Bissonnett, Tom Royer, Noel Troxclair

Horticulture Educators
William Whiteside, Greg Stack Ron Cornwell, Anthony Bratsch, Ed Billingsley

Natural Resource Management Educators
John Church, David Shiley, Robert Frazee, James Krejci, Michael Plumer

Unit Educators and Unit Leaders
Patricia Boyce, Gary Bretthauer, Lennis Clement, Peter Fandel, Herbert Fruhwirt, Duane Friend, Doug Gucker, Robert Harris, Harold Hunzicker, Rick Keim, Tom Lashmett, Charles Leeper, Gary Letterly, Matthew Montgomery, Lance Murdock, Larry Paszkiewsick, Donald Schellhaass, Marion Shier, Ronald Waldrop, Jeffery West, Paul Wirth

Appendix C:

Summary of Accomplishments




  • INTERPAKS session on PAT
  • June 1995

  • Schedule of Commercial PAT Clinics (17,000 copies)

  • Sept 1995

  • WPS Trainer Update with IDA & USEPA

  • June 1995

  • Private Applicator Slide Set & Script Revision

  • Oct 1995

  • Private Applicator Trainer Inservice Education

  • Nov 1995

  • General Standards Workbook Revision (6,000 copies)

  • Nov 1995

  • Aquatics Workbook Reprinted (250 copies)

  • Nov 1995

  • Plant Management Manual Published (2,000 copies)

  • Dec 1995

  • Field Crops Workbook Reprinted (500 copies)

  • Dec 1995

  • Rights-of-Way Workbook Reprinted (1,000 copies)

  • Dec 1995

  • Demonstration and Research Manual Reprinted (100 copies)

  • Dec 1995

  • Turfgrass Revised Manual Published (6,000 copies)

  • Jan 1996

  • Turf & Ornamentals Workbook Revision (2,000 copies)

  • Jan 1996

  • 1996 Ag and Urban Pest Management Handbooks

  • Jan 1996

  • Mosquito Training Materials Printed (100 copies)

  • Feb 1996

  • Crop Protection Workshop (PPE, WPS, and Drift Training)

  • Feb 1996

  • 57 Ways to Protect Your Home (and Yourself) Published

  • Apr 1996

  • D.R. Thompson Dissertation on PAT Training

  • Apr 1996

  • Aquatics Manual Revision (2,000 copies)

  • May 1996

  • Spanish version of Video "Calibrating Golf Course Boom Sprayers"

  • May 1996

Campus-Based Classes Taught by PAT Specialists

Bob Wolf
Organized and cotaught new class Ag Mech 800-Site-Specific Agriculture Taught pesticide safety, equipment and application topics, or demonstrated nozzle types in the following classes: Agronomy 326-Weeds and Their Control, Agronomy 121-Crops Science, Plant Pathology 305-Principles of Plant Disease Control, Ag Mech 333-Agricultural Chemical Application Systems, Ag Mech 221-Farm Power and Machinery Management, Horticulture 236Turfgrass Management, Horticulture 234-Nursery Management, Parkland College-Pest Management Class/Special Applicator Training Class

Rhonda Ferree
Taught pesticide laws and regulations, pesticide safety, weed management, and right-to-know in the following classes: Plant Pathology 305-Principles of Plant Disease Control, Agronomy 326-Weeds and Their Control, Horticulture 494-Professional Orientation in Horticulture. Horticulture. 222-Greenhouse Management, Horticulture 236-Turfgrass Management

Phil Nixon
Taught insect pests of interiorscape plants, chemical control-types of insecticides, and pollution by insecticides in the following classes: Horticulture 227-Indoor Plant Culture, Entomology 120-Introduction to Applied Entomology