University of Illinois Extension

Enhanced Fujita Scale

A scale has been developed that can estimate the wind speed of a tornado by looking at the type of damage it caused. This is called the Enhanced Fujita (pronounced Foo je ta) Scale.

EF Number Wind Speed


65 – 85 mph


86 – 110 mph


111 – 135 mph


136 – 165 mph


166 – 200 mph


> 200 mph

EF0 – The wind peels the surface off some roofs; some damage is caused to gutters or siding; branches are broken off trees; shallow-rooted trees are pushed over.

EF1 – Roofs are severely stripped; mobile homes are overturned or badly damaged; exterior doors are removed; windows are broken.

EF2 – Roofs are torn off well-constructed houses; frame homes are shifted; mobile homes are completely destroyed; large trees are snapped or uprooted; cars are lifted off the ground.

EF3 – Entire stories of well-constructed houses are destroyed; severe damage is done to large buildings such as shopping malls; trains are overturned; trees are debarked; heavy cars lifted off the ground and thrown; structures with weak foundations are blown away.

EF4 – Well-constructed houses and whole frame houses completely leveled; cars thrown and small missiles generated from debris.

EF5- Strong frame houses are swept away; automobile-sized pieces fly through the air; high-rise buildings will have a lot of damage.

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